Cardiovascular functionality strictly depends on endothelial cell trophism and proper biochemical function. Any condition (environmental, pharmacological/toxicological, physical, or neuro-humoral) that changes the vascular endothelium has great consequences for the organism’s wellness and on the outcome and evolution of severe cardiovascular pathologies. Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms, both endogenous and external, that affect endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to preventing and treating these disorders. In recent decades, significant attention has been focused on gut microbiota and how these symbiotic microorganisms can influence host health and disease development. Indeed, dysbiosis has been reported to be at the base of a range of different pathologies, including pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The study of the mechanism underlying this relationship has led to the identification of a series of metabolites (released by gut bacteria) that exert different effects on all the components of the vascular system, and in particular on endothelial cells. The imbalance of factors promoting or blunting endothelial cell viability and function and angiogenesis seems to be a potential target for the development of new therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the circulating factors identified to date, either directly produced by gut microbes or resulting from the metabolism of diet derivatives as polyphenols.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited