Next Article in Journal
Synthesis of a Di-Mycoloyl Tri-Arabinofuranosyl Glycerol Fragment of the Mycobacterial Cell Wall, Based on Synthetic Mycolic Acids
Previous Article in Journal
One-Pot Metal-Free Synthesis of 3-CF3-1,3-Oxazinopyridines by Reaction of Pyridines with CF3CO-Acetylenes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bee Venom: Overview of Main Compounds and Bioactivities for Therapeutic Interests
Open AccessArticle

Chemical Profile and Multicomponent Quantitative Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Toad Venom from Different Origins

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Marc Sabatier
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193595
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
Toad venom (Chansu), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used for treating various cancer. However, it is considerably difficult to evaluate the quality of Chansu due to its complex chemical compositions. Hence, finding the characteristic ingredients and developing a scientific and comprehensive quality evaluation method are essential for guaranteeing the safety and efficacy of Chansu. In this paper, the chemical composition database of Chansu was successfully established and HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS was applied for chemical profiling of the ingredients in Chansu. In total, 157 compounds were identified, including 22 amino acids, 8 alkaloids, 54 bufogenins, 63 bufotoxins, and 10 other compounds. Furthermore, HPLC fingerprints and quantitative analysis of its multicomponent were successfully developed to evaluate the quality consistency of Chansu from different origins. The results suggested that the HPLC fingerprint of Chansu could be divided into an amino acid and alkaloid region, as well as a bufogenins and bufotoxins region. The fingerprint profile of Chansu from different geographical origins were different, indicating that its quality was affected by the geographical factors. In addition, seven characteristic peaks were selected as the quantitative markers to evaluate the quality of the Chansu. The Kruskal–Wallis test illustrated that the contents of seven bufogenins in Chansu were significantly (p < 0.01) different among different origins. The total contents of the seven compounds ranged from 100.40 to 169.22 mg/g in 20 batches of Chansu samples. This study demonstrated that integrating HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS, HPLC fingerprints, and multicomponent quantitative analysis coupled with chemometrics was a comprehensive and reliable strategy for evaluation of Chansu in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. In addition, our study represented the most comprehensive characterization on the chemical compositions of Chansu, which could provide important reference information for the discovery of potential bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chansu; HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS; HPLC fingerprint; quality evaluation; chemometrics Chansu; HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS; HPLC fingerprint; quality evaluation; chemometrics
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, Y.; Wu, J.; Pan, H.; Wang, L. Chemical Profile and Multicomponent Quantitative Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Toad Venom from Different Origins. Molecules 2019, 24, 3595.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop