Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are an important health problem. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the impact of isolated oat beta-glucan fractions of low and high molecular weight, taken as dietary supplementation, on inflammatory markers in the colitis model. Methods: Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats—control and with experimentally induced colitis—were subsequently divided into three subgroups and fed over 21 days feed supplemented with 1% of low (βGl) or high (βGh) molecular weight oat beta-glucan fraction or feed without supplementation. The level of colon inflammatory markers, cytokines, and their receptors’ genes expressions and immune cells numbers were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR, and by flow cytometry methods, respectively. Results: The results showed moderate inflammation affecting the colon mucosa and submucosa, with significant changes in the number of lymphocytes in the colon tissue, elevated cytokines and eicosanoid levels, as well as disruption of the main cytokine and chemokine cell signaling pathways in colitis rats. Beta-glucans supplementation caused a reverse in the percentage of lymphocytes with stronger effects of βGh and reduction of the levels of the inflammatory markers, and improvement of cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways with stronger effects of βGl supplementation. Conclusions: The results indicate the therapeutic effect of dietary oat beta-glucan supplementation in the colitis in evident relation to the molecular weight of polymer.
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