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Open AccessArticle

Design, Synthesis, and Activity Evaluation of Novel N-benzyl Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives for Use as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors

by 1,2,3, 1,2,*, 1,2, 1, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,4,*
1
Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Functional Food, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
2
College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
3
Jiangxi Academy of Forestry, Nanchang 330013, China
4
Collaborative Innovation Center of Jiangxi Typical, Trees Cultivation and Utilization, Nanchang 330045, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Béla Juhász
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183309
Received: 3 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds for Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes-II)
To obtain α-glucosidase inhibitors with high activity, 19 NB-DNJDs (N-benzyl-deoxynojirimycin derivatives) were designed and synthesized. The results indicated that the 19 NB-DNJDs displayed different inhibitory activities towards α-glucosidase in vitro. Compound 18a (1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol) showed the highest activity, with an IC50 value of 0.207 ± 0.11 mM, followed by 18b (1-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol, IC50: 0.276 ± 0.13 mM). Both IC50 values of 18a and 18b were significantly lower than that of acarbose (IC50: 0.353 ± 0.09 mM). According to the structure-activity analysis, substitution of the benzyl and bromine groups on the benzene ring decreased the inhibition activity, while methoxy and hydroxyl group substitution increased the activity, especially with the hydroxyl group substitution. Molecular docking results showed that three hydrogen bonds were formed between compound 18a and amino acids in the active site of α-glucosidase. Additionally, an arene‒arene interaction was also modelled between the phenyl ring of compound 18a and Arg 315. The three hydrogen bonds and the arene‒arene interaction resulted in a low binding energy (–5.8 kcal/mol) and gave 18a a higher inhibition activity. Consequently, compound 18a is a promising candidate as a new α-glucosidase inhibitor for the treatment of type Ⅱ diabetes.
Keywords: N-benzyl deoxynojirimycin derivatives; α-glucosidase inhibitor; structure-activity analysis; molecular docking N-benzyl deoxynojirimycin derivatives; α-glucosidase inhibitor; structure-activity analysis; molecular docking
MDPI and ACS Style

Zeng, F.; Yin, Z.; Chen, J.; Nie, X.; Lin, P.; lu, T.; Wang, M.; Peng, D. Design, Synthesis, and Activity Evaluation of Novel N-benzyl Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives for Use as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors. Molecules 2019, 24, 3309.

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