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Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Epidermal Keratinocyte Differentiation and Ameliorates Inflammation in Human Keratinocytes and Reconstructed Human Epidermis Models

by Tinghan Jia 1,*,†, Wu Qiao 2,†, Qifeng Yao 1, Wenhui Wu 2 and Ken Kaku 1
1
Pigeon Maternal & Infant Skin Care Research Institute, Shanghai 201700, China
2
Department of Marine Bio-Pharmacology, College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editor: Arduino A. Mangoni
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3156; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173156
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause skin barrier function damage. Although co-incubation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts a positive effect on deficient skin models, no studies have investigated the effects of topical treatment with DHA in an inflammatory reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. The effects of DHA on monolayer normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The skin-related barrier function was assessed using hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining, Western blot (WB), immunohistofluorescence (IF), and ELISA in normal and inflammatory RHE models. Docosahexaenoic acid upregulated filaggrin and loricrin expression at mRNA levels in addition to suppressing overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-α (IL-1α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulated by polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (stimulation cocktail) in cultured NHEK cells. After topical treatment with DHA, cocktail-induced inflammatory characteristics of skin diseases, including barrier morphology, differentiation proteins, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) secretion, were alleviated in RHE models. Supplementation with DHA can improve related barrier function and have anti-inflammation effects in monolayer keratinocytes and RHE models, which indicates that DHA may have potential value for the treatment of inflammation-associated skin diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; reconstructed human models; filaggrin; skin barrier; inflammation docosahexaenoic acid; reconstructed human models; filaggrin; skin barrier; inflammation
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Jia, T.; Qiao, W.; Yao, Q.; Wu, W.; Kaku, K. Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Epidermal Keratinocyte Differentiation and Ameliorates Inflammation in Human Keratinocytes and Reconstructed Human Epidermis Models. Molecules 2019, 24, 3156.

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