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From Fish Eggs to Fish Name: Caviar Species Discrimination by COIBar-RFLP, an Efficient Molecular Approach to Detect Fraud in the Caviar Trade

1
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences–Section of Animal Biology “M. La Greca”, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cinthia Ed7, 80126 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Cozzolino
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132468
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Analytical Chemistry–Advance Instrumental Methods and Sensors)
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Abstract

The demand for caviar is growing as is its price on the market. Due to the decline of true caviar production from sturgeons, eggs from other fish species and other animals have been used as substitutes for caviar. The labels on these products should indicate the species from which the eggs were derived, but the label can be misleading in some cases. In this context, species identification using DNA analysis is crucial for traceability and authentication of caviar products. In this work, we applied the COIBar-RFLP procedure to obtain species-specific endonuclease restriction patterns useful to discriminate “caviar” species. The tested caviar products were identified as originating from eight species: Acipenser transmontanus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. stellatus, A. baerii, Mallotus villosus, Huso huso, Cyclopterus lumpus and Eumicrotremus orbis. The results demonstrated that 14% of the caviar products examined have a label that does not indicate the species from which the eggs were originated. The MboI restriction enzyme produced specific profiles discriminating the eight species, confirming that the COIBar-RFLP is a useful approach for routine screening of seafood products due to its ease and rapid execution, as the results of screening can be obtained within 7 h, by-passing the need for sequencing. View Full-Text
Keywords: caviar; species identification; DNA barcoding; COIBar-RFLP caviar; species identification; DNA barcoding; COIBar-RFLP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pappalardo, A.M.; Petraccioli, A.; Capriglione, T.; Ferrito, V. From Fish Eggs to Fish Name: Caviar Species Discrimination by COIBar-RFLP, an Efficient Molecular Approach to Detect Fraud in the Caviar Trade. Molecules 2019, 24, 2468.

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