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Article

Comparison of Strategies for the Determination of Sterol Sulfates via GC-MS Leading to a Novel Deconjugation-Derivatization Protocol

1
Department of Pharmacy-Center for Drug Research, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich, Germany
2
Biomedical Center (BMC), Metabolic Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 17, 81377 Munich, Germany
3
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 17, 81377 Munich, Germany
4
Leiden University Medical Center, Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, Albinusdreef 2, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yasunori Yaoita
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132353
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Sterols)
Sulfoconjugates of sterols play important roles as neurosteroids, neurotransmitters, and ion channel ligands in health and disease. In most cases, sterol conjugate analysis is performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is a valuable tool for routine analytics with the advantage of direct sterol sulfates analysis without previous cleavage and/or derivatization. The complementary technique gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a preeminent discovery tool in the field of sterolomics, but the analysis of sterol sulfates is hampered by mandatory deconjugation and derivatization. Despite the difficulties in sample workup, GC-MS is an indispensable tool for untargeted analysis and steroid profiling. There are no general sample preparation protocols for sterol sulfate analysis using GC-MS. In this study we present a reinvestigation and evaluation of different deconjugation and derivatization procedures with a set of representative sterol sulfates. The advantages and disadvantages of trimethylsilyl (TMS), methyloxime-trimethylsilyl (MO-TMS), and trifluoroacetyl (TFA) derivatives were examined. Different published procedures of sterol sulfate deconjugation, including enzymatic and chemical cleavage, were reinvestigated and examined for diverse sterol sulfates. Finally, we present a new protocol for the chemical cleavage of sterol sulfates, allowing for simultaneous deconjugation and derivatization, simplifying GC-MS based sterol sulfate analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct derivatization; solvolysis; sterol methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether direct derivatization; solvolysis; sterol methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether
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MDPI and ACS Style

Junker, J.; Chong, I.; Kamp, F.; Steiner, H.; Giera, M.; Müller, C.; Bracher, F. Comparison of Strategies for the Determination of Sterol Sulfates via GC-MS Leading to a Novel Deconjugation-Derivatization Protocol. Molecules 2019, 24, 2353. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132353

AMA Style

Junker J, Chong I, Kamp F, Steiner H, Giera M, Müller C, Bracher F. Comparison of Strategies for the Determination of Sterol Sulfates via GC-MS Leading to a Novel Deconjugation-Derivatization Protocol. Molecules. 2019; 24(13):2353. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132353

Chicago/Turabian Style

Junker, Julia, Isabelle Chong, Frits Kamp, Harald Steiner, Martin Giera, Christoph Müller, and Franz Bracher. 2019. "Comparison of Strategies for the Determination of Sterol Sulfates via GC-MS Leading to a Novel Deconjugation-Derivatization Protocol" Molecules 24, no. 13: 2353. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132353

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