Next Article in Journal
Identification of a Quality Marker of Vinegar-Processed Curcuma Zedoaria on Oxidative Liver Injury
Next Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Origanum syriacum Essential Oil against the Mosquito Vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Gastrointestinal Parasite Anisakis simplex, with Insights on Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition
Previous Article in Journal
Development of the Inhibitors That Target the PD-1/PD-L1 Interaction—A Brief Look at Progress on Small Molecules, Peptides and Macrocycles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Two Monoterpenoids, Carvacrol and Thymol, and Their Combinations against Eggs and Larvae of the West Nile Vector Culex pipiens
 
 
Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum

1
Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Babol-Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol 8415683111, Iran
2
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177899191, Iran
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol 46131, Iran
4
Department of Pharmacology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol 8415683111, Iran
5
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Babol-Branch Islamic Azad University, Babol 8415683111, Iran
6
Research Center of Skin Diseases and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9137913316, Iran
7
Young Researcher and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Babol-Branch, Babol 8415683111, Iran
8
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
9
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy
10
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
11
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josphat Matasyoh
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products as Effective Biopesticides and Antiprotozoal Agents)
Background: One of the most important causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is Leishmania infantum, which is mainly spread by Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sandflies in the Old and New World, respectively. Novel and effective drugs to manage this neglected vector-borne disease are urgently required. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of carvacrol, thymol and linalool, three common essential oil constituents, on amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum. Methods: in vitro experiments were performed by 24 h MTT assay. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 μg/mL were tested on promastigotes of L. infantum. For in vivo test, two groups of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) received 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of carvacrol and thymol as intraperitoneal injection on day 7 post-infection, followed by a 48 h later injection. The third group was treated with the glucantime as standard drug (500 mg/kg) and the last group (control) just received normal saline. On the 16th day, the number of parasites and histopathological changes in liver and spleen were investigated. Results: 24 h MTT assay showed promising antileishmanial activity of thymol and carvacrol, with IC50 values of 7.2 (48 μM) and 9.8 μg/mL (65 μM), respectively. Linalool at all concentrations did not affect L. infantum promastigote viability. In vivo toxicity data of carvacrol and thymol showed that the former at 100 mg/kg was the safest and most effective treatment with little side effects on the liver. Conclusions: Overall, thymol and carvacrol are highly promising candidates for the development of effective and safe drugs in the fight against VL. View Full-Text
Keywords: insect vectors; neglected tropical diseases; protozoan parasites; sandflies; visceral leishmaniasis insect vectors; neglected tropical diseases; protozoan parasites; sandflies; visceral leishmaniasis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Youssefi, M.R.; Moghaddas, E.; Tabari, M.A.; Moghadamnia, A.A.; Hosseini, S.M.; Farash, B.R.H.; Ebrahimi, M.A.; Mousavi, N.N.; Fata, A.; Maggi, F.; Petrelli, R.; Dall’Acqua, S.; Benelli, G.; Sut, S. In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum. Molecules 2019, 24, 2072. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072

AMA Style

Youssefi MR, Moghaddas E, Tabari MA, Moghadamnia AA, Hosseini SM, Farash BRH, Ebrahimi MA, Mousavi NN, Fata A, Maggi F, Petrelli R, Dall’Acqua S, Benelli G, Sut S. In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum. Molecules. 2019; 24(11):2072. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072

Chicago/Turabian Style

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza, Elham Moghaddas, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash, Mohammad Amin Ebrahimi, Niki Nabavi Mousavi, Abdolmajid Fata, Filippo Maggi, Riccardo Petrelli, Stefano Dall’Acqua, Giovanni Benelli, and Stefania Sut. 2019. "In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against Leishmania infantum" Molecules 24, no. 11: 2072. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop