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Molecules 2019, 24(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010195

Protective Effect of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Mugwort (Artemisia argyi) against Contrast-Induced Apoptosis in Kidney Epithelium Cell Line LLC-PK1

1
Department of Biosystems and Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
3
College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
4
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Bio-Nano technology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chingfeng Weng
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Chronic Disorders)
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Abstract

We investigated whether 14 phenolic compounds isolated from Artemisia argyi could prevent the apoptotic damage caused by iodixanol, an iodinated contrast agent, on LLC-PK1 cells. Iodixanol was used to induce cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells. Apoptotic cell death was observed as the fluorescence intensity emitted by annexin V and Hoechst 33342 stains. Western blotting was used to detect specific proteins. Seven phenolic compounds protected against iodixanol-induced LLC-PK1 cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Among them, methyl caffeate exerted the strongest protective effect, and co-treatment with 50 and 100 μM methyl caffeate decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species elevated by 25 mg/mL iodixanol. In addition, the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with iodixanol resulted in an increase in apoptotic cell death, which decreased by co-treatment with methyl caffeate. Iodixanol caused a cytotoxicity-related increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and P38; and a similar increase in the expression levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and cleaved caspase-3. However, the up-regulation of these proteins was reversed by co-treatment with methyl caffeate. These findings suggest that phenolic compounds isolated from A. argyi play an important role in protecting kidney epithelium cells against apoptotic damage caused by iodixanol. View Full-Text
Keywords: contrast agent; iodixanol; cytotoxicity; MAPKs; caspase-3; kidney injury molecule-1 contrast agent; iodixanol; cytotoxicity; MAPKs; caspase-3; kidney injury molecule-1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, K.O.; Lee, D.; Hiep, N.T.; Song, J.H.; Lee, H.-J.; Lee, D.; Kang, K.S. Protective Effect of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Mugwort (Artemisia argyi) against Contrast-Induced Apoptosis in Kidney Epithelium Cell Line LLC-PK1. Molecules 2019, 24, 195.

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