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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2048;

Putative Iron Acquisition Systems in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics)
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Iron has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, oxidative stress response and several pathogenic mechanisms in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Thus, the present study is aimed at identifying various iron acquisition systems and iron sources utilized during iron starvation in S. maltophilia. The annotations of the complete genome of strains K279a, R551-3, D457 and JV3 through Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) revealed two putative subsystems to be involved in iron acquisition: the iron siderophore sensor and receptor system and the heme, hemin uptake and utilization systems/hemin transport system. Screening for these acquisition systems in S. maltophilia showed the presence of all tested functional genes in clinical isolates, but only a few in environmental isolates. NanoString nCounter Elements technology, applied to determine the expression pattern of the genes under iron-depleted condition, showed significant expression for FeSR (6.15-fold), HmuT (12.21-fold), Hup (5.46-fold), ETFb (2.28-fold), TonB (2.03-fold) and Fur (3.30-fold). The isolates, when further screened for the production and chemical nature of siderophores using CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) and Arnows’s colorimetric assay, revealed S. maltophilia to produce catechol-type siderophore. Siderophore production was also tested through liquid CAS assay and was found to be greater in the clinical isolate (30.8%) compared to environmental isolates (4%). Both clinical and environmental isolates utilized hemoglobin, hemin, transferrin and lactoferrin as iron sources. All data put together indicates that S. maltophilia utilizes siderophore-mediated and heme-mediated systems for iron acquisition during iron starvation. These data need to be further confirmed through several knockout studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; iron acquisition systems; iron-depleted; RAST server; NanoString Technologies; siderophores Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; iron acquisition systems; iron-depleted; RAST server; NanoString Technologies; siderophores

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kalidasan, V.; Azman, A.; Joseph, N.; Kumar, S.; Awang Hamat, R.; Neela, V.K. Putative Iron Acquisition Systems in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Molecules 2018, 23, 2048.

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