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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081983

Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Amino Acid Profiles and Their Derived Volatile Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines

1
College of Enology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Ningxia Grape and Wine Research Institute, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750000, China
3
Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling 712100, China
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract

Amino acid contents and their derived volatile compositions in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines after regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) were investigated during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in Yinchuan (NingXia, China). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for amino acid and volatile compound analyses. Three RDI strategies were tested: 60% (RDI-1), 70% (RDI-2), and 80% (RDI-3) of grapevine estimated evapotranspiration (ETc), and 100% ETc was used as the control group (CK). RDI-treated vines had lower yields and berry weights with higher total soluble solids than the control treatment. RDI-1 increased proline levels in berries and wines. RDI-2 enhanced tyrosine and asparagine levels in wines. RDI-3 enhanced arginine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine levels in berries and wines. RDI-2 and RDI-3 increased the concentrations of 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, benzaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-pentanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol in wines. The accumulation of volatile compounds was closely related to the amino acid concentrations—especially isoleucine, valine, and leucine—in grapes. Our results showed that RDI treatments altered amino acid concentrations and their derived volatile compositions in wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: water deficit irrigation; secondary metabolism; red wine; winegrape water deficit irrigation; secondary metabolism; red wine; winegrape
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Ju, Y.-L.; Xu, G.-Q.; Yue, X.-F.; Zhao, X.-F.; Tu, T.-Y.; Zhang, J.-X.; Fang, Y.-L. Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Amino Acid Profiles and Their Derived Volatile Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines. Molecules 2018, 23, 1983.

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