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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051230

Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations

1
CRC-Ge.S.Di.Mont.—Centre for Applied Studies in the Sustainable Management and Protection of the Mountain Environment, CRC-Ge.S.Di.Mont.—Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Morino 8, Edolo, 25048 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences—Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
UPFARM-UTIFAR—The Professional Union of Pharmacists for Orphan Medicines; Piazza Duca d'Aosta, 14, 20124 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133 Milan, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Scienze per gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e l’Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
6
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 103, 41121 Modena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD)-based oil preparations are becoming extremely popular, as CBD has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. CBD-based oil preparations are not unambiguously regulated under the European legislation, as CBD is not considered as a controlled substance. This means that companies can produce and distribute CBD products derived from non-psychoactive hemp varieties, providing an easy access to this extremely advantageous cannabinoid. This leaves consumers with no legal quality guarantees. The objective of this project was to assess the quality of 14 CBD oils commercially available in European countries. An in-depth chemical profiling of cannabinoids, terpenes and oxidation products was conducted by means of GC-MS and HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS in order to improve knowledge regarding the characteristics of CBD oils. Nine out of the 14 samples studied had concentrations that differed notably from the declared amount, while the remaining five preserved CBD within optimal limits. Our results highlighted a wide variability in cannabinoids profile that justifies the need for strict and standardized regulations. In addition, the terpenes fingerprint may serve as an indicator of the quality of hemp varieties, while the lipid oxidation products profile could contribute in evaluation of the stability of the oil used as milieu for CBD rich extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabidiol; CBD oil; terpenes; hemp seed oil; GC-MS; HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS cannabidiol; CBD oil; terpenes; hemp seed oil; GC-MS; HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pavlovic, R.; Nenna, G.; Calvi, L.; Panseri, S.; Borgonovo, G.; Giupponi, L.; Cannazza, G.; Giorgi, A. Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Molecules 2018, 23, 1230.

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