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Establishment of the Volatile Signature of Wine-Based Aromatic Vinegars Subjected to Maceration

CQM—Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 499;
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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The flavoring of vinegars with aromatic fruits and medicinal herbs is a practice with increasing trend mostly in countries with oenological tradition, resulting in a product of improved quality and consumer attractiveness. This study was directed towards the evaluation of the impact of the maceration process on the volatile signature of wine-based aromatic vinegars (WBAVs). The evaluation was performed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental parameters influencing headspace solid (HS)-SPME extraction efficiency, were optimized using an univariate experimental design. The best results were achieved using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, 10 mL of vinegar sample, at 50 °C for 30 min of extraction. This way One hundred and three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), belonging to different chemical families including ethyl esters (37), higher alcohols (20), fatty acids (10), terpenoids (23), carbonyl compounds (six), lactones (five) and volatile phenols (two), were identified in wine vinegar (control) and WBAV. As far as we know, 34 of these VOCs are reported for the first time in macerated vinegars. Higher alcohols and lactones are the major chemical families in WBAV macerated with apple, whereas terpenoids are predominant in WBAV macerated with banana. The obtained data represent a suitable tool to guarantee the authenticity and genuineness of WBAV, as well as to promote the production of WBAV with improved sensorial and organoleptic properties. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies dealing with the volatile signature of WBAV enriched with banana, passion fruit, apple and pennyroyal. View Full-Text
Keywords: vinegars; volatile signature; HS-SPME/GC-MS; PCA; authenticity vinegars; volatile signature; HS-SPME/GC-MS; PCA; authenticity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Perestrelo, R.; Silva, C.L.; Silva, P.; Câmara, J.S. Establishment of the Volatile Signature of Wine-Based Aromatic Vinegars Subjected to Maceration. Molecules 2018, 23, 499.

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