Precise structure-property relation of a biodegradable polymer (e.g., aliphatic polyester) is anticipated only if monomer units and chiral centers are arranged in a defined primary sequence as a biomacromolecule. An emerging synthetic methodology, namely segmer assembly polymerization (SAP), is introduced in this paper to reveal the latest progress in polyester synthesis. Almost any periodic polyester envisioned can be synthesized via SAP using a programed linear or cyclic monomer. In this context, the macroscopic properties of a biodegradable polymer are fundamentally determined by microstructural information through a bottom-up approach. It can be highlighted that SAP ideally combines the precision of organic synthesis and the high efficiency of a polymerization reaction. Previously reported strategies including nucleophilic displacement, polyesterification, cross-metathesis polymerization (CMP), ring-opening polymerization (ROP), ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and entropy-driven ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ED-ROMP) are critically reviewed in this paper to shed light on precision synthesis of aliphatic polyesters via SAP. Emerging yet challenging, SAP is a paradigm which reflects the convergence of organic and polymer chemistries and is also an efficient pathway to microstructural control. The current status, future challenges and promising trends in this realm are analyzed and discussed in this overview of the state-of-the-art.
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