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Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123226

Binary Mixtures of Selected Bisphenols in the Environment: Their Toxicity in Relationship to Individual Constituents

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Str., Gdańsk 80-233, Poland
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia, St. Kliment Ohridski”, 1164 Sofia, 1 James Bourchier Blvd., Bulgaria
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Str., Gdańsk 80-233, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most popular and commonly used plasticizer in the industry. Over the past decade, new chemicals that belong to the bisphenol group have increasingly been used in industrial applications as alternatives to BPA. Nevertheless, information on the combined effects of bisphenol (BP) analogues is insufficient. Therefore, our current study aimed to find the biological response modulations induced by the binary mixtures of BP compounds. We determined the toxicity levels in Microtox and XenoScreen YES/YAS assays for several BP analogs alone, and for their binary mixtures. The results obtained constituted the database for chemometric intelligent data analysis to evaluate the possible interactions occurring in the mixtures. Several chemometric/biophysical models have been used (concentration addition—CA, independent action—IA and polynomial regression calculations) to realize this aim. The best fitting was found for the IA model and even in this description strong evidence for synergistic behaviors (modes of action) of some bisphenol analogue mixtures was demonstrated. Bisphenols A, S, F and FL were proven to be of significant endocrine threat (with respect to XenoScreen YES/YAS assay); thus, their presence in mixtures (including presence in tissues of living organisms) should be most strictly monitored and reported.
Keywords: bisphenol A analogues; Microtox®; XenoScreen YES/YAS; model deviation ratio bisphenol A analogues; Microtox®; XenoScreen YES/YAS; model deviation ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Owczarek, K.; Kudłak, B.; Simeonov, V.; Mazerska, Z.; Namieśnik, J. Binary Mixtures of Selected Bisphenols in the Environment: Their Toxicity in Relationship to Individual Constituents. Molecules 2018, 23, 3226.

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