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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides

1
School of Biological Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
3
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102631
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
Fifteen unreported compounds in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, iriflophene (3), hostaplantagineoside C (7), tuberoside G (8), spicatoside B (9), platycodin D (14), platycoside A (15), platycodin D2 (16), polygalacin D2 (17), platycodin D3 (18), isovitexin (20), vitexin (21), 3,4-dihydroxyallylbenzene-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (22), iryptophan (24), adenosine (25), α-d-Glucose monoallyl ether (26), together with eleven known compounds (1, 2, 46, 1013, 19 and 23), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. The chemical structures of these compounds were characterized using HRMS and NMR. The anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds were evaluated by investigating their ability to inhibit LPS-induced NO production in N9 microglial cells. Timosaponin BIII (TBIII) and trans-hinokiresinol (t-HL) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the NO production in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 11.91 and 39.08 μM, respectively. Immunoblotting demonstrated that TBIII and t-HL suppressed NO production by inhibiting the expressions of iNOS in LPS-stimulated N9 microglial cells. Further results revealed that pretreatment of N9 microglial cells with TBIII and t-HL attenuated the LPS-induced expression tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at mRNAs and protein levels. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways were inhibited by TBIII and t-HL, respectively. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic implication of TBIII and t-HL for neurogenerative disease associated with neuroinflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anemarrhena asphodeloides; purification; anti-inflammation; N9 Anemarrhena asphodeloides; purification; anti-inflammation; N9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Z.; Cai, J.; Fu, Q.; Cheng, L.; Wu, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhang, C. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. Molecules 2018, 23, 2631.

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