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Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102526

Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. Polyphenols Modulate Interferon Gamma/Histamine-Induced Inflammation in Human NCTC 2544 Keratinocytes

1
Laboratoire Matériaux-Molécules et Applications, University of Carthage, IPEST, B.P. 51 2070, La Marsa, Tunisia
2
Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, University of Carthage, Jarzouna, 7021, Bizerte, Tunisia
3
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 97-95123 Catania, Italy
4
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", Via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
5
Department of Biomed & Biotech Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 97, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Natural Polyphenols to Synthetic Bioactive Analogues)
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Abstract

Melaleuca styphelioides, known as the prickly-leaf tea tree, contains a variety of bioactive compounds. The purposes of this study were to characterize the polyphenols extracted from Melaleuca styphelioides leaves and assess their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The polyphenol extracts were prepared by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity. The LC/MS-MS technique was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. An assessment of the radical scavenging activity of all extracts was performed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS+), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined on interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/histamine (H)-stimulated human NCTC 2544 keratinocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR. Compared to other solvents, methanolic extract presented the highest level of phenolic contents. The most frequent phenolic compounds were quercetin, followed by gallic acid and ellagic acid. DPPH, ABTS+, and FRAP assays showed that methanolic extract exhibits strong concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. IFN-γ/H treatment of human NCTC 2544 keratinocytes induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory mediator inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which were inhibited by extract. In conclusion, the extract of Melaleuca styphelioides leaves is rich in flavonoids, and presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. It can be proposed as a useful compound to treat inflammatory skin diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Melaleuca styphelioides; polyphenols; LC/MS-MS; anti-oxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; keratinocytes Melaleuca styphelioides; polyphenols; LC/MS-MS; anti-oxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; keratinocytes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Albouchi, F.; Avola, R.; Dico, G.M.L.; Calabrese, V.; Graziano, A.C.E.; Abderrabba, M.; Cardile, V. Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. Polyphenols Modulate Interferon Gamma/Histamine-Induced Inflammation in Human NCTC 2544 Keratinocytes. Molecules 2018, 23, 2526.

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