Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Identification of Novel Berberine Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors against TNF-α-Induced NF-κB Activation
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) Using UHPLC-Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS/MS-Based Metabolomics
Open AccessArticle

Screening Hepatotoxic Components in Euodia rutaecarpa by UHPLC-QTOF/MS Based on the Spectrum-Toxicity Relationship

Key Lab of Modern Preparations of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China
Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang 330004, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1264;
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
PDF [5987 KB, uploaded 31 July 2017]


Euodia rutaecarpa is a common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinical practice, having the ability to suppress pain and cease coughing; however, with the increasing reports showing that it is toxic, particularly hepatotoxic, the concerns raised by what cause its toxicity is growing. In the current study, an analysis method based on the spectrum effect has been employed to screen the major hepatotoxic components in Euodia rutaecarpa so that the toxic material’s basis would be elucidated. A fingerprinting method of the Euodia rutaecarpa extracts (which were petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) has been developed. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) was used to establish the spectrum-toxicity relationship with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in mice serum as evaluation indices for liver injury. The UHPLC-MS fingerprint was established and the OPLS analytical results suggested that coniferin, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, 1-methyl-2-[(6Z,9Z,12E)-pentadeca triene]-4(1H)-quinolone, evocarpine, 1-methyl-2-[(Z)-7-tridecenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone, dihydroevocarpine, and 1-methyl-2-tetradecy-4-(1H)-quinolone probably associated with the hepatotoxicity of Euodia rutaecarpa. This paper offered considerable methods and insight for the fundamental research of the toxic material basis of similar toxic TCMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Euodia rutaecarpa; spectrum-toxicity relationship; hepatotoxicity; UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS; OPLS Euodia rutaecarpa; spectrum-toxicity relationship; hepatotoxicity; UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS; OPLS

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, J.; Chen, Y.; Ren, G.; Dong, W.; Shi, M.; Xiong, L.; Li, J.; Dong, J.; Li, F.; Yuan, J. Screening Hepatotoxic Components in Euodia rutaecarpa by UHPLC-QTOF/MS Based on the Spectrum-Toxicity Relationship. Molecules 2017, 22, 1264.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top