Next Article in Journal
A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae)
Previous Article in Journal
Synthetic Approaches to Mono- and Bicyclic Perortho-Esters with a Central 1,2,4-Trioxane Ring as the Privileged Lead Structure in Antimalarial and Antitumor-Active Peroxides and Clarification of the Peroxide Relevance
Previous Article in Special Issue
Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Molecules 2017, 22(1), 120;

Natural Products and Inflammation
Laboratoire BioPeroxIL, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, Université de Bourgogne, 6, Blvd Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon, France; Tel.: +33-380-396-237
Received: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Inflammation (or inflammatory reaction) is the response to body aggression by a pathogen agent, an allergen, a toxic compound, a tissue lesion, etc. It can be a general phenomenon with fever and tiredness, or a local phenomenon with pain and edema. Inflammation is characterized by the production of various active signaling molecules, such as vaso-active amines (histamine/serotonin), prostaglandins, leukotriens, kininogens/kallikreins/kinins, complement factors, cytokines, and MMPs (Matrix MetalloProteinases)/TIMPs (Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteinases). All of the following pathologies present with a strong inflammatory component; infection, injury, vessel atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, osteo-arthritis, ocular diseases, demyelination, and brain pathologies associated with aging. Inflammation is a complex response that involves, among other interactions between activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells (i.e., antigen presenting cells or APCs) and monocytes, subsequently differentiated into macrophages. During this process, numerous cytokines are secreted by immune cells and by injured tissue non-immune cells as a consequence of cell-cell interactions.
The immunomodulation by various compounds, such as natural products, represents a promising preventive or therapeutic strategy against a number of pathological processes. Beside pro-inflammatory cytokines/interleukins, various lipid mediators produced through arachidonate metabolism also play a key role in inflammation-linked pathologies, such as atherosclerosis or cancers.
More than 27 original papers or review papers have reported the inhibitory effect of natural products on inflammation processes, at least in low grade inflammation. These compounds included plant polyphenols or derivatives: resveratrol [1], quercetin [2,3], edible plants (cactus [4], tomato [5]), herbal medicine [6] such as Potentilla erecta [7], coumarin derivatives [8], Euphorbia derivative Jolkinolide B [9], Viscum album [10], koumine, as alkaloid of Gelsemium elegans [11], soft medicine (Anacardium [12]), and different interesting compounds: the anti-inflammatory cosmetics (Citrus bergamia [13]), Aspalathus linearis, an African plant used as a drink [14], or Xanthone as a dye [15].
Besides reviews on anti-inflammatory properties of natural products [6,16], there are papers investigating natural compound-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanisms including the regulation of non-coding regulatory miRNAs [17], HDAC modulation [18], COX-2 sensitivity [19], Inflammasome targeting [20], and the use of coumarin derivatives [8]. In addition, this Special Issue reports papers related to the anti-inflammatory effect of natural products on different physiopathological processes: allergy [6], ocular system [1], keratinocytes [14], asthma [21], emphysema [22], respiratory tract [9], viral infection [23], immune cells [2,11,24,25], and the brain [4,15].
In conclusion, the large number and the diversity of papers in this proposed topic of Natural Products and Inflammation confirm the interest of this association. It contributed to reveal promising compounds and their potential interest in the immunmodulation.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


  1. Lançon, A.; Frazzi, R.; Latruffe, N. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases. Molecules 2016, 21, 304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Kim, Y.J.; Park, W. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Quercetin on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages Induced with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid. Molecules 2016, 21, 450. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Mlcek, J.; Jurikova, T.; Skrovankova, S.; Sochor, J. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response. Molecules 2016, 21, 623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Saih, F.-E.; Andreoletti, P.; Mandard, S.; Latruffe, N.; El Kebbaj, M.S.; Lizard, G.; Nasser, B.; Cherkaoui-Malki, M. Protective effect of cactus cladode extracts on peroxisomal functions in microglial BV-2 cells activated by different lipopolysaccharides. Molecules 2017, 22, 102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Schwager, J.; Richard, N.; Mussler, B.; Raederstorff, D. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Park, K.I.; Kim, D.G.; Yoo, J.M.; Ma, J.Y. The Herbal Medicine KIOM-MA128 Inhibits the Antigen/IgE-Mediated Allergic Response in Vitro and in Vivo. Molecules 2016, 21, 1015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Hoffmann, J.; Casetti, F.; Bullerkotte, U.; Haarhaus, B.; Vagedes, J.; Schempp, C.M.; Wölfle, U. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Agrimoniin-Enriched Fractions of Potentilla erecta. Molecules 2016, 21, 792. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Kirsch, G.; Abdelwahab, A.B.; Chaimbault, P. Natural and Synthetic Coumarins with Effects on Inflammation. Molecules 2016, 21, 1322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Xu, X.; Liu, N.; Zhang, Y.; Cao, J.; Wu, D.; Peng, Q.; Wang, H.; Sun, W. The Protective Effects of HJB-1, a Derivative of 17-Hydroxy-Jolkinolide B, on LPS-Induced Acute Distress Respiratory Syndrome Mice. Molecules 2016, 21, 77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Yuan, Z.; Liang, Z.; Wu, J.; Yi, J.; Chen, X.; Sun, Z. A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Apoptotic Property of Koumine Involving Mitochondrial Pathway in LPS-Mediated RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Molecules 2016, 21, 1317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. De Araújo Vilar, M.S.; de Souza, G.L.; de Araújo Vilar, D.; Leite, J.A.; Raffin, F.N.; Barbosa-Filho, J.M.; Nogueira, F.H.A.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, S.; de Lima Moura, T.F.A. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark. Molecules 2016, 21, 1087. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Ferlazzo, N.; Cirmi, S.; Calapai, G.; Ventura-Spagnolo, E.; Gangemi, S.; Navarra, M. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand? Molecules 2016, 21, 1273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Magcwebeba, T.; Swart, P.; Swanevelder, S.; Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. Extracts in a UVB/Keratinocyte (HaCaT) Model Utilising Interleukin-1α Accumulation as Biomarker. Molecules 2016, 21, 1323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Yoon, C.; Kim, D.; Quang, T.H.; Seo, J.; Kang, D.G.; Lee, H.S.; Oh, H.; Kim, Y. A Prenylated Xanthone, Cudratricusxanthone A, Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK Pathways in BV2 Microglia. Molecules 2016, 21, 1240. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Azab, A.; Nassar, A.; Azab, A.N. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products. Molecules 2016, 21, 1321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Tili, E.; Michaille, J. Promiscuous Effects of Some Phenolic Natural Products on Inflammation at Least in Part Arise from Their Ability to Modulate the Expression of Global Regulators, Namely microRNAs. Molecules 2016, 21, 1263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Losson, H.; Schnekenburger, M.; Dicato, M.; Diederich, M. Natural Compound Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi): Synergy with Inflammatory Signaling Pathway Modulators and Clinical Applications in Cancer. Molecules 2016, 21, 608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Fang, W.; Lin, X.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, H.; Zhou, X. Asperpyrone-type bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones with COX-2-Inhibitory Activities from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus niger. Molecules 2016, 21, 941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Dutartre, P. Inflammasomes and Natural Ingredients towards New Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Molecules 2016, 21, 1492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Liang, Z.; Xu, Y.; Wen, X.; Nie, H.; Hu, T.; Yang, X.; Chu, X.; Yang, J.; Deng, X.; He, J. Rosmarinic Acid Attenuates Airway Inflammation and Hyperresponsiveness in a Murine Model of Asthma. Molecules 2016, 21, 769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Games, E.; Guerreiro, M.; Santana, F.R.; Pinheiro, N.M.; de Oliveira, E.A.; Lopes, F.D.T.Q.S.; Olivo, C.R.; Tibério, I.F.L.C.; Martins, M.A.; Lago, J.H.G.; et al. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Molecules 2016, 21, 390. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Deng, L.; Pang, P.; Zheng, K.; Nie, J.; Xu, H.; Wu, S.; Chen, J.; Chen, X. Forsythoside a Controls Influenza a Virus Infection and Improves the Prognosis by Inhibiting Virus Replication in Mice. Molecules 2016, 21, 524. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Saha, C.; Das, M.; Stephen-Victor, E.; Friboulet, A.; Bayry, J.; Kaveri, S.V. Differential Effects of Viscum album Preparations on the Maturation and Activation of Human Dendritic Cells and CD4+ T Cell Responses. Molecules 2016, 21, 912. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Li, X.; Li, S.; Lu, M.; Yang, G.; Shen, Y.; Zhou, X. Proteomic Profiling of Iron Overload-Induced Human Hepatic Cells Reveals Activation of TLR2-Mediated Inflammatory Response. Molecules 2016, 21, 322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. So, Y.; Lee, S.Y.; Han, A.; Kim, J.; Jeong, H.G.; Jin, C.H. Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits LPS-Induced NO Production via Suppression of MyD88-Dependent and -Independent Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 1083. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top