Next Article in Journal
Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29
Next Article in Special Issue
Metal-Free α-C(sp3)–H Functionalized Oxidative Cyclization of Tertiary N,N-Diaryl Amino Alcohols: Theoretical Approach for Mechanistic Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Tamaractam, a New Bioactive Lactam from Tamarix ramosissima, Induces Apoptosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stereoselective Alkane Oxidation with meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid (MCPBA) Catalyzed by Organometallic Cobalt Complexes
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Molecules 2017, 22(1), 109; doi:10.3390/molecules22010109

Communication
Atom-Economic Synthesis of 4-Pyrones from Diynones and Water
1
College of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541004, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China
*
Correspondence: Tel.: +86-773-584-6279 (Y.-M.P.); Fax: +86-773-5803930 (Y.-M.P.); +86-773-5893619 (X.-L.M.)
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017

Abstract

:
Transition-metal-free synthesis of 4-pyrones via TfOH-promoted nucleophilic addition/cyclization of diynones and water has been developed. This transformation is simple, atom economical and environmentally benign, providing rapid and efficient access to substituted 4-pyrones.
Keywords:
4-pyrones; diynones; water; transition-metal-free

1. Introduction

Water (H2O) is inexpensive, safe, and environmentally friendly [1]. It is the most economic and eco-friendly solvent available in Nature and therefore highly desirable for chemical reactions [2]. Generally, water offers several “green chemistry” benefits as a solvent in organic transformations, including high efficiency, lower cost, ease of process, green and environmental protection [3,4]. Recently, there are many reports of clean transformations in water medium [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19], such as coupling reactions [20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30], cyclizations [31,32,33,34], Michael additions [35,36,37,38,39], and condensations [40,41]. Additionally, H2O also participates in organic reactions as a nucleophile [42,43] to provide various kinds of functional compounds such as imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines [44], amino acid salts [45], α-amino ketones [46], and 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones [47]. Thus, the studies of organic reactions in aqueous solvents or H2O-participating reactions are attractive in synthetic chemistry.
4-Pyrones are heterocycles with multiple biological activities [48,49,50], which are widely found in biologically active natural products and functional chemicals [51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59]. Particularly, phenoxans, funicones and rapicones possess potent anti-HIV activity (Figure 1) [60,61,62]. In general, 4-pyrones are prepared via the well-known condensation cyclization reaction of carbonyl compounds with polystep reactions [63,64,65,66,67]. Additionally, a transformation of isoxazoles to substituted pyran-4-ones in the presence of Mo(CO)6 and HCO2H in a two-step procedure was established [68]. Although these reported methods have made significant contributions to the applications of 4-pyrones in pharmacology and food manufacture [69], the development of efficient and practical synthetic methods for 4-pyrones from easily accessible starting materials is still highly desirable. Continuing our interest in the conversion of alkynes to heterocycles [70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77], herein, we would like to describe an efficient, transition-metal-free synthesis of 4-pyrones through TfOH-promoted cyclization of diynones. Water acts as both the substrate and solvent, obviating the need for an organic co-solvent. Overall, the reaction is atom-economical and environmentally benign.

2. Results and Discussion

1,5-Diphenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (1a) was chosen as model substrate to identify the optimal conditions for this reaction (Table 1). Originally, the reaction was carried out in the presence of 1 equiv. TfOH for 24 h to afford the desired product 2a in 70% yield (Table 1, entry 1). When other acid catalysts such as CH3COOH, PTSA, HCl, H3PO4 and PhCOOH were screened, the yield of 2a decreased (Table 1, entries 2–6). Further experiments demonstrated that decreasing the amount of TfOH was detrimental to the yield of 2a (Table 1, entries 7 and 8), and no obvious improvement of yield was noted by using 2 equiv. of TfOH (Table 1, entry 9). Poor yield of 2a was obtained when the reaction was performed at 80 °C, while not much change was noted between 100 °C and 130 °C (Table 1, entries 10 and 11). In addition, an 83% yield was achieved when the reaction time was extended to 36 h (Table 1, entry 12). Thus, the best conditions for this transformation involved 1 equiv. of TfOH in H2O at 100 °C for 36 h.
Under the optimized reaction conditions, the one-pot reaction worked well using all kinds of diynones, as shown in Scheme 1. Firstly, various symmetric diynones were identified as suitable substrates for the reaction and provided the desired products in moderate to good yields (Scheme 1, 2b2j). Aryl groups with electron-donating groups (EDG) gave satisfactory yields (Scheme 1, 2b2d and 2f2h), whereas aryl groups with electron-withdrawing groups (EWG) afforded slightly lower yields (Scheme 1, 2e). Gratifyingly, aliphatic diynones worked smoothly to generate the corresponding cyclization products 2i and 2j in 50% and 57%, respectively (Scheme 1, 2i and 2j). After exploring the reaction substrate scope of symmetric diynones, we next examined asymmetric diynones substrates. To our delight, the corresponding 4-pyrones products were obtained in moderate to good yields under the standard conditions (Scheme 1, 2k2r). The desired products 2k2q were obtained in 55%–78% yields when asymmetric diynones substrates 1k1q (R2 = Ph, R1 = aryl- or alkyl-) were subjected to this reaction. Obviously, aryl groups with electron-donating groups gave higher yields than diynones featuring electron-withdrawing groups on the phenyl ring (Scheme 1, 2l and 2m vs. 2n and 2p). Notably, diynone 1p, which possess an electron-withdrawing group at the ortho-position of the phenyl ring (R1 = 2-Cl-Ph, R2 = Ph) reacted readily to afford 2p in 61% yield (Scheme 1, 2p). Furthermore, diynone 1q, which bear both a EDG-incorporated aryl ring and a EWG-incorporated aryl ring (R1 = 4-OMe-Ph, R2 = 4-F-Ph) also participated well in the reaction and offered 2q in 63% yield (Scheme 1, 2q). Finally, diynone 1r also worked smoothly to give 2r in 50% yield (Scheme 1, 2r).
To better understand the reaction mechanism, we carried out control experiments as outlined in Scheme 2. Deuterium-labeled D2O was used in the reaction with diynone 1a to give the deuterium-labeled product 2a-d in 80% yield, where over 95% of deuterium was incorporated into the cyclization product.
This result demonstrated that H2O was introduced into the 4-pyrones. Moreover, an O18-labeled experiment further showed that H2O reacted with diynones to form 4-pyrones.
On the basis of the above results and existing literature [78], a plausible mechanistic description of the nucleophilic addition and cyclization reaction is shown in Scheme 3. First, the carbonyl of the diynone substrate was activated by TfOH, followed by nucleophilic addition of H2O to the carbon−carbon triple bond of diynone and keto–enol tautomerization [79,80] to form intermediate A. Then intermediate A was converted to B through protonation and C–C bond rotation, which was promoted by elevated temperature. Subsequently, an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the oxhydryl group to the carbon−carbon triple bond of B lead to a cyclization intermediate C. Finally, deprotonation of C gave the desired 4-pyrone 2.
The treatment of 1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one 1a in H2O at 100 °C for 36 h in the presence of TfOH afforded the corresponding cyclization product 2a in 83% yield. The preparation of this compound 2a on gram-scale afforded 53% of the isolated product (Scheme 4).

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. General Information

All manipulations were performed under an air atmosphere unless otherwise stated. Column chromatography was performed on silica gel (300–400 mesh). NMR spectra were obtained using an Avance 500 spectrometer (1H at 500 MHz and 13C at 125 MHz) or an Avance 400 spectrometer (1H at 400 MHz and 13C at 100 MHz) (Bruker Corporation, Karlsruhe, Germany). IR spectra were recorded on a Nicolet ESP 360 FT-IR spectrometer (Nicolet, Madison, WI, USA) and only major peaks are reported in cm−1. High resolution mass spectra (HRMS) were recorded on an Exactive Mass Spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) equipped with ESI or APCI ionization sources. Unless stated otherwise, commercial reagents were used without further purification. All reagents were weighed and handled at room temperature. Compounds 1a1r were prepared by the reported methods [78,81]. The NMR spectra and HRMS spectra of the products can be found in the Supplementary Materials.

3.2. General Procedure for the Synthesis of Compound 2

The reaction mixture of 1 (0.5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.) and H2O (1 mL) in a 15 mL test tube was stirred at 100 °C for 36 h, and monitored periodically by TLC. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (5 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 × 5 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, v/v = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford 4-pyrones 2 (Scheme 5).
2,6-Diphenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2a) [82]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (115.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (102.90 mg, 83%); m.p. 135.3–136.2 °C (lit: 139–140 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.89–7.82 (m, 4H), 7.55–7.50 (m, 6H), 6.81 (s, 2H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.2, 163.3, 131.4, 131.4, 129.1, 125.9, 111.4 ppm; IR (KBr): 3060, 2925, 1647, 1614, 1604, 1493, 1450, 1392, 943, 770, 683 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C17H13O2 249.0917 [M + H+]; found 249.0906.
2,6-Di-p-tolyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2b) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-di-p-tolylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (129.05 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (117.35 mg, 85%); m.p. 180.5–183.1 °C (lit: 178 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.74 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 42H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 4H), 6.76 (s, 2H), 2.43 (s, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.4, 163.4, 141.9, 129.8, 128.7, 125.8, 110.7, 21.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3066, 1646, 1605, 1507, 1413, 1383, 942, 819, 478 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C19H17O2 277.1230 [M + H+]; found 277.1219.
2,6-Bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2c) [82]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (145.05 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (124.78 mg, 81%); m.p. 190–193.8 °C (lit: 189–191 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.79 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 4H), 7.02 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 4H), 6.70 (s, 2H), 3.88 (s, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 163.2, 162.1, 134.4, 127.5, 123.9, 114.5, 109.7, 55.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 2983, 2875, 2765, 1651, 1607, 1507, 1387, 1262, 1226, 1177, 1020, 829 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C19H17O4 309.1129 [M + H+]; found 309.1115.
2,6-Bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2d) [82]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (171.10 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (154.89 mg, 86%); m.p. 192.5–193.1 °C (lit: 192–194 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.79 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 4H), 7.54 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 4H), 6.81 (s, 2H), 1.36 (s, 18H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.5, 163.5, 155.0, 128.6, 126.0, 125.7, 34.9, 31.0 ppm; IR (KBr): 3064, 3003, 2998, 2970, 2868, 1715, 1667, 1650, 1450, 1340, 1250, 910 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C25H29O2 361.2169 [M + H+]; found 361.2153.
2,6-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2e) [82]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (133.12 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a white solid (85.22 mg, 60%); m.p. 160–161.3 °C (lit: 167–170 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.84 (dd, J = 8.5, 5.2 Hz, 4H), 7.22 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 6.75 (s, 2H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 179.9, 164.6 (d, J = 253.4 Hz), 162.5, 128.1 (d, J = 8.8 Hz), 127.6 (d, J = 3.3 Hz), 116.5(d, J = 22.2 Hz), 111.3 ppm; IR (KBr): 3059, 2924, 1662, 1599, 1504, 1417, 1380, 1241, 1223, 1160, 837 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C17H11F2O2 285.0729 [M + H+]; found 285.0716.
2,6-Bis(4-pentylphenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2f). The general procedure was used with 1,5-bis(4-pentylphenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (185.11 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (163.06 mg, 84%); m.p. 66.7–67.9 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.76 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 4H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 4H), 6.77 (s, 2H), 2.70–2.66 (m, 4H), 1.69–1.61 (m, 4H), 1.36–1.33 (m, 8H), 0.90 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.5, 163.5, 146.9, 129.2, 128.9, 125.9, 110.7, 35.8, 31.4, 30.8, 22.5, 13.9 ppm; IR (KBr): 3032, 2956, 2929, 2857, 1717, 1649, 1609, 1419, 1380, 1186, 944, 849, 649 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C27H33O2 389.2482 [M + H+]; found 389.2466.
2,6-Bis(4-ethylphenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2g) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-bis(4-ethylphenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (143.07 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a brown solid (124.70 mg, 82%); m.p. 119.5–121.5 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.77 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 4H), 7.34 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 4H), 6.77 (s, 2H), 2.72 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 4H), 1.28 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.4, 163.5, 148.2, 128.9, 128.6, 125.9, 110.6, 28.8, 15.2 ppm; IR (KBr): 3070, 2965, 2875, 1647, 1610, 1510, 1451, 1420, 1383, 1187, 1014, 945, 837, 643 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C21H21O2 305.1543 [M + H+]; found 305.1532.
2,6-Di-m-tolyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2h) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-di-m-tolylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (129.05 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a light yellow solid (100.78 mg, 73%); m.p. 73.5–75.5 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.66–7.62 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 4H), 7.41 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.34 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 6.78 (s, 2H), 2.45 (s, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 163.6, 138.9, 132.1, 131.4, 129.0, 126.5, 123.1, 111.3, 21.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3063, 2923, 1646, 1611, 1485, 1384, 1260, 1075, 929, 784, 694, 435 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C19H17O2 277.1230 [M + H+]; found 277.1219.
2,6-Dipropyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2i) [78]. The general procedure was used with undeca-4,7-diyn-6-one (81.05 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a brown oil (45.03 mg, 50%); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 6.05 (s, 1H), 2.44 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 4H), 1.69–1.61 (m, 4H), 0.95 (td, J = 7.4, 1.1 Hz, 6H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.6, 169.1, 113.0, 35.4, 20.1, 13.3 ppm; IR (KBr): 3437, 2965, 2875, 1663, 1619, 1411, 1398, 1148, 933, 864 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C11H14O2 181.1230 [M + H+]; found 181.1221.
2,6-Dicyclopropyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2j) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1,5-dicyclopropylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (79.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a white solid (50.19 mg, 57%); m.p. 146.7–150.7 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 6.04 (s, 2H), 1.72 (tt, J = 8.3, 5.0 Hz, 2H), 1.00–0.95 (m, 4H), 0.92–0.88 (m, 4H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 179.5, 168.6, 111.1, 13.7, 7.8 ppm; IR (KBr): 3045, 3010, 2955, 1655, 1602, 1586, 1401, 1095, 1053, 858 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C11H13O2 177.0917 [M + H+]; found 177.0908.
2-Phenyl-6-propyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2k) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1-phenylocta-1,4-diyn-3-one (98.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a brown solid (83.50 mg, 78%); m.p. 49.8–51.5 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.75 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.51–7.46 (m, 1H), 6.72 (s, 1H), 6.19 (s, 1H), 2.60 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 1.82–1.73 (m, 1H), 1.03 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.1, 168.8, 163.6, 131.5, 131.3, 129.0, 125.8, 114.0, 111.1, 35.6, 20.3, 13.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3060, 2926, 1653, 1617, 1493, 1450, 1409, 1061, 937, 866, 772, 691 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C14H15O2 215.1074 [M + H+]; found 215.1065.
2-Phenyl-6-(p-tolyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2l) [83]. The general procedure was used with 1-phenyl-5-(p-tolyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (112.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (85.18 mg, 65%); m.p. 155.1–156.4 °C (lit: 150 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.88–7.83 (m, 2H), 7.75 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.54–7.51 (m, 3H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 6.83–6.78 (m, 2H), 2.44 (s, 3H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.4, 163.6, 163.3, 142.0, 131.5, 131.4, 129.8, 129.1, 128.6, 125.91, 125.86, 111.3, 110.7, 21.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3064, 2922, 2854, 1646, 1606, 1448, 1413, 1387, 943, 816 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C18H15O2 263.1074 [M + H+]; found 263.1061.
2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2m) [78]. The general procedure was used with 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-phenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (130.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a brown solid (97.33 mg, 70%); m.p. 161.3–162.2 °C (lit: 162 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.82 (dd, J = 6.6, 3.0 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 7.50 (dd, J = 5.0, 1.7 Hz, 3H), 7.00 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H), 6.76 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.2, 163.3, 163.0, 162.2, 131.5, 131.2, 129.0, 127.5, 125.8, 123.6, 114.5, 111.1, 109.8, 55.4 ppm; IR (KBr): 3443, 3067, 2900, 2843, 1647, 1604, 1509, 1448, 1423, 1383, 1023, 832, 767, 684 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C18H15O3 279.1014 [M + H+]; found 279.1013.
2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2n). The general procedure was used with 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (124.03 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (77.16 mg, 58%); m.p. 145.5–150.6 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.89–7.82 (m, 4H), 7.56–7.51 (m, 3H), 7.22 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.82 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 6.77 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.1, 165.6, 163.6, 163.4, 162.5, 131.5, 131.3, 129.2, 128.1 (d, J = 8.9 Hz), 127.6, 125.9, 116.4 (d, J = 22.1 Hz), 111.3 (d, J = 24.2 Hz) ppm; IR (KBr): 3061, 2924, 1659, 1505, 1508, 1417, 1449, 1388, 1232, 1162 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C17H12FO2 267.0823 [M + H+]; found 267.0813.
2-Cyclopropyl-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2o) [84]. The general procedure was used with 1-cyclopropyl-5-phenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (97.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (58.33 mg, 55%); m.p. 106.5–107.8 °C (lit: 106 °C); 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.67 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 7.50–7.45 (m, 3H), 6.69 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.23 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 1.90 (tt, J = 7.9, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 1.12 (tt, J = 4.7, 2.5 Hz, 4H) ppm; 13C-NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 179.8, 169.5, 162.7, 131.3, 131.2, 129.0, 125.6, 111.6, 111.0, 14.1, 8.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3059, 2927, 1651, 1609, 1544, 1496, 1448, 1394, 1253, 1193, 1087, 931, 878, 766, 685 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (APCI): calcd. for C14H13O2 213.0917 [M + H+]; found 213.0908.
2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2p) [85]. The general procedure was used with 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-phenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (132.02 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (86.03 mg, 61%); m.p. 123.5–124.6 °C (lit: 122–124 °C); 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.86–7.81 (m, 2H), 7.60 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.57–7.54 (m, 1H), 7.52–7.48 (m, 2H), 7.48–7.46 (m, 1H), 7.44 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 7.4, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.67 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H) ppm; 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 178.0, 164.1, 162.6, 132.8, 131.9, 131.5, 131.4, 131.2, 130.9, 130.7, 129.1, 127.2, 126.0, 116.8, 111.2 ppm; IR (KBr): 3059, 2931, 1667, 1650, 1600, 1580, 1403, 1250, 1000, 910, 665 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (ESI): calcd. for C17H12ClO2 283.0528 [M + H+]; found 283.0513.
2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (2q) [85]. The general procedure was used with 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-diyn-3-one (139.04 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (93.27 mg, 63%); m.p. 138.7–140.5 °C (lit: 144–148 °C); 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.86–7.82 (m, 2H), 7.80–7.77 (m, 2H), 7.27–7.18 (m, 2H), 7.05–7.00 (m, 2H), 6.72 (dd, J = 3.7, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 3.89 (s, 3H) ppm; 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.2, 165.8, 163.4, 163.3, 162.2 (d, J = 8.9 Hz), 128.1 (d, J = 8.8 Hz), 127.8 (d, J = 3.3 Hz), 127.6, 123.6, 116.4 (d, J = 22.1 Hz), 114.6, 111.0, 109.9, 55.5 ppm; IR (KBr): 3673, 3067, 2969, 1657, 1610, 1509, 1422, 1385, 1270, 1227, 1169, 1074, 1021, 841 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (ESI): calcd. for C18H14FO3 297.0929 [M + H+]; found 297.0913.
2-Phenyl-4H-pyran-4-one (2r) [86]. The general procedure was used with 1-phenylpenta-1,4-diyn-3-one (77.02 mg, 0.5 mmol, 1 equiv.) and water (1 mL). The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (43.02 mg, 50%); yellow solid; m.p. 102.2–103.5 °C (lit: 100–102 °C); 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.84 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 7.51–7.44 (m, 3H), 6.78 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.38 (dd, J = 5.8, 2.3 Hz, 1H) ppm; 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 179.0, 163.9, 154.8, 131.4, 131.0, 129.0, 125.7, 117.0, 112.3 ppm; IR (KBr): 3090, 1675, 1650, 1590, 1549, 1490, 1450, 1402, 1350, 1050, 931, 875, 795, 730, 650 cm−1; HRMS (m/z) (ESI): calcd. for C11H9O2 173.0604 [M + H+]; found 173.0603.

3.3. Control Experiments

3.3.1. Deuterium Labeling Experiments

The reaction mixture of 1 (0.5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.), and D2O (1 mL) in a 15 mL test tube was stirred at 100 °C for 36 h, and monitored periodically by TLC. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (5 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 × 5 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, v/v = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford 4-pyrone 2a-d (100.04 mg, 80%) as a yellow solid; m.p. 116.1–119.5 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.90–7.83 (m, 4H), 7.55–7.51 (m, 6H), 6.84 (s, 0.12H) (Scheme 6).

3.3.2. O18-Labelling Experiment

The reaction mixture of 1a (0.5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.), and H2O18 (1 mL) in a 15 mL test tube was stirred at 100 °C for 36 h, and monitored periodically by TLC. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (5 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 × 5 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, v/v = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford 4-pyrone O18-2a (78%) (Scheme 7).

3.3.3. Gram-Scale Synthesis

The reaction mixture of 1a (5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.) and H2O (10 mL) in a 50 mL round-bottom flask was stirred at 100 °C for 36 h, and monitored periodically by TLC. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 × 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, v/v = 5:1 to 2:1) to afford 4-pyrone 2a (53%) (Scheme 8).

4. Conclusions

We have developed a simple and efficient transition-metal-free method for the synthesis of substituted 4-pyrones from diynones and H2O. Water is a cheap, green and readily available staring material, which converted to the desired 4-pyrone products via a nucleophilic addition/cyclization/ dehydrogenation process. The operational simplicity, good yields, and environmentally benign nature of this method make it an attractive route to 4-pyrones. Further studies on the applications of 4-pyrones in drug design are currently ongoing in our laboratory.

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary materials can be accessed at: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/1/109/s1: copies of NMR spectra and HRMS spectra of products.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21362002 and 81260472), Guangxi Natural Science Foundation of China (2014GXNSFDA118007 and 2016GXNSFEA380001), Project of Guangxi Department of Education (KY2014037), State Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources (CMEMR2014-A02 and CMEMR2012-A20), the Fund of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Functional Phytochemicals Research and Utilization (FPRU2015-2), and Guangxi’s Medicine Talented Persons Small Highland Foundation (1306).

Author Contributions

Yan-Li Xu and Qing-Hu Teng conceived and designed the experiments. The experimental work was conducted by Qing-Hu Teng under the supervision of Ying-Ming Pan and Xian-Li Ma who are the lead author; Qing-Hu Teng and Wei Tong analyzed the data; Heng-Shan Wang contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools; Yan-Li Xu and Qing-Hu Teng wrote the paper.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Abbreviations

TfOHtrifluoromethanesulfonic acid
PTSA4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid
HClhydrochloric acid
HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus
HOAcacetic acid
Phphenyl
Memethyl
OMemethoxyl
Etethyl
tButertiary butyl
nPrn-propyl
NMRnuclear magnetic resonance
HRMShigh-resolution mass

References

  1. Padiya, K.J.; Gavade, S.; Kardile, B.; Tiwari, M.; Bajare, S.; Mane, M.; Gaware, V.; Varghese, S.; Harel, D.; Kurhade, S. Unprecedented “In Water” Imidazole Carbonylation: Paradigm Shift for Preparation of Urea and Carbamate. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 2814–2817. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Narayan, S.; Muldoon, J.; Finn, M.G.; Fokin, V.V.; Kolb, H.C.; Sharpless, K.B. “On Water”: Unique Reactivity of Organic Compounds in Aqueous Suspension. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 3275–3279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Pirrung, M.C.; Sarma, K.D. Multicomponent Reactions Are Accelerated in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 444–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. DeSimone, J.M. Practical Approaches to Green Solvents. Science 2002, 297, 799–803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Powner, M.W.; Zheng, S.-L.; Szostak, J.W. Multicomponent Assembly of Proposed DNA Precursors in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13889–13895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Lindstedt, E.; Ghosh, R.; Olofsson, B. Metal-Free Synthesis of Aryl Ethers in Water. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 6070–6073. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Li, C.J. Organic Reactions in Aqueous Media-With a Focus on Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation. Chem. Rev. 1999, 93, 2023–2035. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Huang, Y.-T.; Lu, S.-Y.; Yi, C.-L.; Lee, C.-F. Iron-Catalyzed Synthesis of Thioesters from Thiols and Aldehydes in Water. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 4561–4568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Hao, X.; Xu, Z.M.; Lu, H.F.; Dai, X.D.; Yang, T.; Lin, X.C.; Ren, F. Mild and Regioselective N-Alkylation of 2-Pyridones in Water. Org. Lett. 2015, 17, 3382–3385. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Sberegaeva, A.V.; Zavalij, P.Y.; Vedernikov, A.N. Oxidation of a Monomethylpalladium(II) Complex with O2 in Water: Tuning Reaction Selectivity to Form Ethane, Methanol, or Methylhydroperoxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 1446–1455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Egami, H.; Katsuki, T. Fe(salan)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides with Hydrogen Peroxide in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 8940–8941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Shaikh, T.M.; Emmanuvel, A.L.; Sudalai, A. NaIO4-Mediated Selective Oxidation of Alkylarenes and Benzylic Bromides/Alcohols to Carbonyl Derivatives Using Water as Solvent. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 5043–5046. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Liu, X.S.; Wang, Z.T.; Cheng, X.M.; Li, C.Z. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Alkynylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 14330–14333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Barker, T.J.; Boger, D.L. Fe(III)/NaBH4-Mediated Free Radical Hydrofluorination of Unactivated Alkenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13588–13591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Li, Z.D.; Song, L.Y.; Li, C.Z. Silver-Catalyzed Radical Aminofluorination of Unactivated Alkenes in Aqueous Media. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4640–4643. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Fujita, M.; Nagano, T.; Schneider, U.; Hamada, T.; Ogawa, C.; Kobayashi, S. Zn-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylation for the Synthesis of Optically Active Allylglycine Derivatives. Regio- and Stereoselective Formal α-Addition of Allylboronates to Hydrazono Esters. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 2914–2915. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Gordillo, A.; Ortuño, M.A.; Mardomingo, C.L.; Lledós, A.; Ujaque, G.; Jesús, E. Mechanistic Studies on the Pd-Catalyzed Vinylation of Aryl Halides with Vinylalkoxysilanes in Water: The Effect of the Solvent and NaOH Promoter. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 13749–13763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Felpin, F.-X.; Landais, Y. Practical Pd/C-Mediated Allylic Substitution in Water. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 6441–6446. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Candeias, N.R.; Gois, P.M.P.; Afonso, C.A.M. Rh(II)-Catalyzed Intramolecular C–H Insertion of Diazo Substrates in Water: Scope and Limitations. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 5489–5497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Sotto, N.; Billamboz, M.; Carole, C.-V.; Len, C. Selective Pinacol Coupling on Regeneratable Supported Acids in Sole Water. J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 6375–6380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Liu, L.F.; Dong, Y.; Pang, B.; Ma, J.H. [Bmim]PF6-Promoted Ligandless Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reaction of Potassium Aryltrifluoroborates in Water. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 7193–7198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Botella, L.; Nájera, C. Mono- and β,β-Double-Heck Reactions of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds in Aqueous Media. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 4360–4369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Erb, W.; Albini, M.; Rouden, J.; Blanchet, J. Sequential One-Pot Access to Molecular Diversity through Aniline Aqueous Borylation. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 10568–10580. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Kalutharage, N.; Yi, C.S. Chemoselective Formation of Unsymmetrically Substituted Ethers from Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols in Aqueous Solution. Org. Lett. 2015, 17, 1778–1781. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Hikawa, H.; Suzuki, H.; Azumaya, I. Au(III)/TPPMS-Catalyzed Benzylation of Indoles with Benzylic Alcohols in Water. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 12128–12135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Handa, S.; Slack, E.D.; Lipshutz, B.H. Nanonickel-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Couplings in Water. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 11994–11998. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Nishikata, T.; Lipshutz, B.H. AllylicEthersas Educts for Suzuki–Miyaura Couplings in Water at Room Temperature. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 12103–12105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Han, J.; Liu, Y.; Guo, R. Facile Synthesis of Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticles and Their Unexpected Excellent Catalytic Activity for Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 2060–2061. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Wei, C.-H.; Mannathan, S.; Cheng, C.-H. Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Substituted Cyclic Ketones via Cobalt-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reductive Coupling of Alkynes with Alkenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 6942–6944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Chang, H.-T.; Jayanth, T.T.; Wang, C.-C.; Cheng, C.-H. Cobalt-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Activated Alkenes with Alkynes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 12032–12041. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Zheng, L.; Zhou, Z.-Z.; He, Y.-T.; Li, L.-H.; Ma, J.-W.; Qiu, Y.-F.; Zhou, P.-X.; Liu, X.-Y.; Xu, P.-F.; Liang, Y.-M. Iodine-Promoted Radical Cyclization in Water: A Selective Reaction of 1,6-Enynes with Sulfonyl Hydrazides. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 66–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Xia, X.-F.; Zhu, S.-L.; Chen, C.; Wang, H.J.; Liang, Y.-M. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Addition/Cyclization of Activated Alkenes with Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 1277–1284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Cao, J.-L.; Shen, S.-L.; Yang, P.; Qu, J. A Catalyst-Free One-Pot Construction of Skeletons of 5-Methoxyseselin and Alloxanthoxyletin in Water. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 3856–3859. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Yu, W.S.; Bulger, P.G.; Maloney, K.M. A High-Yielding Method for the Preparation of Isoxazolopyridin-3-amine Derivatives. Green Chem. 2016, 18, 4941–4946. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Mase, N.; Nakai, Y.; Ohara, N.; Yoda, H.; Takabe, K.; Tanaka, F.; Barbas, C.F., III. Organocatalytic Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reactions in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 734–735. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Lerebours, R.; Wolf, C. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Arylsiloxanes in Water. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 2737–2740. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Wu, X.-L.; Wang, G.-W. Aminochlorination in Water: First Brønsted Acid-Promoted Synthesis of Vicinal Chloramines. J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 9398–9401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Zheng, Z.L.; Perkins, B.L.; Ni, B. Diarylprolinol Silyl Ether Salts as New, Efficient, Water-Soluble, and Recyclable Organocatalysts for the Asymmetric Michael Addition on Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 50–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. He, R.J.; Shirakawa, S.; Maruoka, K. Enantioselective Base-Free Phase-Transfer Reaction in Water-Rich Solvent. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 16620–16621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Murase, T.; Nishijima, Y.; Fujita, M. Cage-Catalyzed Knoevenagel Condensation under Neutral Conditions in Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 162–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Li, B.; Li, C.B. Neighboring Heteroatom Effect Unique to Aqueous Aldol Reactions of Water-Insoluble Substrates. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 2242–2254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Zhang, X.; Li, J.; Tian, H.; Shi, Y. Catalytic Asymmetric Bromination of UnfunctionalizedOlefins with H2 Oasa Nucleophile. Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21, 11658–11663. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Kang, Q.-K.; Wang, L.-J.; Liu, Q.-J.; Li, J.-F.; Tang, Y. Asymmetric H2O-Nucleophilic Ring Opening of D−A Cyclopropanes: Catalyst Serves as a Source of Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 14594–14597. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Mohan, D.C.; Rao, S.N.; Adimurthy, S. Synthesis of Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines: “Water-Mediated” Hydroamination and Silver-Catalyzed Aminooxygenation. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 1266–1272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Hu, P.; Yehoshoa, B.-D.; Milstein, D. General Synthesis of Amino Acid Salts from Amino Alcohols and Basic Water Liberating H2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 6143–6146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. Miura, T.; Biyajima, T.; Fujii, T.; Murakami, M. Synthesis of α-Amino Ketones from Terminal Alkynes via Rhodium Catalyzed Denitrogenative Hydration of N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 194–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Buyck, T.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, J.P. Triple Role of Phenylselenonyl Group Enabled a One-Pot Synthesis of 1,3-Oxazinan-2-ones Fromα-Isocyanoacetates, Phenyl Vinyl Selenones, and Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 11524–11528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. Colemana, M.T.D.; Garson, M.J. Marine polypropionates. Nat. Prod. Rep. 1998, 15, 477–493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Sakakura, A.; Watanabe, H.; Ishihara, K. Rate-Accelerating Effect by the Neighboring-Group Participation of Protecting Groups in the Dehydrative Cyclization of 1,3,5-Triketones. Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 2569–2572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Boukouvalas, J.; Wang, J.-X. Structure Revision and Synthesis of a Novel Labdane Diterpenoid from Zingiber ottensii. Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 3397–3399. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Molenda, J.J.; Jones, M.M.; Johnston, D.S.; Walker, E.M.; Cannon, D.J. Mobilization of Iron by Chiral and Achiral Anionic 3-Hydroxypyrid-4-one. J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 4363–4370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Stossel, D.; Chan, T.H. A 5C + 5C Bicycloaromatization Reaction via an Aldol Condensation Acyclic Precursors Cascade: A Regioselective Synthesis of Functionalized Naphthalenes from Acyclic Precursors. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 4901–4908. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Reddy, D.S.; Velde, D.V.; Aube, J. Synthesis and Conformational Studies of Dipeptides Constrained by Disubstituted 3-(Aminoethoxy)propionic Acid Linkers. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 1716–1719. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Ma, Y.M.; Luo, W.; Quinn, P.J.; Liu, Z.D.; Hider, R.C. Design, Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Evaluation of Novel Iron Chelators with Fluorescent Sensors. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 6349–6362. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Luo, S.Z.; Mi, X.L.; Xu, H.; Wang, P.G.; Cheng, J.-P. Efficient Baylis-Hillman Reactions of Cyclic Enones in Methanol As Catalyzed by Methoxide Anion. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 8413–8422. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Yeates, C.L.; Batchelor, J.F.; Capon, E.C.; Cheesman, N.J.; Fry, M.; Hudson, A.T.; Pudney, M.; Trimming, H.; Woolven, J.; Bueno, J.M.; et al. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of 4-Pyridones as Potential Antimalarials. J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 2845–2852. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Fakih, S.; Podinovskaia, M.; Kong, X.L.; Collins, H.L.; Schaible, U.E.; Hider, R.C. Targeting the Lysosome: Fluorescent Iron(III) Chelators To Selectively Monitor Endosomal/Lysosomal Labile Iron Pools. J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 4539–4552. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Fabiola, B.-J.; Ward, D.E. On the Origin of Siphonariid Polypropionates: Total Synthesis of Caloundrin B and Its Isomerization to Siphonarin B. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 1648–1651. [Google Scholar]
  59. Li, D.-F.; Hu, P.-P.; Liu, M.-S.; Kong, X.-L.; Zhang, J.-C.; Hider, R.C.; Zhou, T. Design and Synthesis of Hydroxypyridinone-l-phenylalanine Conjugates as Potential Tyrosinase Inhibitors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61, 6597–6603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Garey, D.; Ramirez, M.-L.; Gonzales, S.; Wertsching, A.; Tith, S.; Keefe, K.; Peña, M.R. An Approach to Substituted 4-Hydroxypyran-2-ones: The Total Synthesis of Phenoxan. J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61, 4853–4856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. Ishibashi, Y.; Ohba, S.; Nishiyama, S.; Yamamura, S. Total Synthesis of Phenoxan and a Related Pyrone Derivative. Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 2997–3000. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Ehrlich, M.; Carell, T. Total Syntheses and Biological Evaluation of 3-O-Methylfunicone and Its Derivatives Prepared by TMPZnCl·LiCl-Mediated Halogenation and Carbonylative Stille Cross-Coupling. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 1, 77–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Light, R.J.; Hauser, C.R. Aroylations of p-Diketones at the Terminal Methyl Group to Form 1,3,5-Triketones. Cyclizations to 4-Pyrones and 4-Pyridones. J. Org. Chem. 1960, 25, 538–546. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Morris, J.; Luke, G.P.; Wishka, D.G. Reaction of Phosgeniminium Salts with Enolates Derived from Lewis Acid Complexes of 2′-Hydroxypropiophenones and Related β-Diketones. J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61, 3218–3220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. Bunescu, A.; Reimann, S.; Lubbe, M.; Spannenberg, A.; Langer, P. Synthesis of Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Arenes, Cyclohexenones and Pyran-4-ones by Cyclocondensation of 1,3-Bis(silyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with 4,4-Dimethoxy-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-one: Influence of the Lewis Acid on the Product Distribution. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 5002–5010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. Malamasa, M.S.; Barnes, K.; Johnson, M.; Hui, Y.; Zhou, P.; Turner, J.; Hu, Y.; Wagner, E.; Fan, K.; Chopra, R.; et al. Di-substituted pyridinyl aminohydantoins as potent and highly selective human β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2010, 18, 630–639. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. Weber, F.; Brückner, R. Total Syntheses of the Dihydrofuranonecarboxylate Natural Products Gregatin B and E: Gram-Scale Synthesis of (+)-Gregatin B and Unambiguous Assignment of the Stereostructure of (+)-Gregatin E. Org. Lett. 2014, 16, 6428–6431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. Li, C.-S.; Lacasse, E. Synthesis of Pyran-4-ones from Isoxazoles. Tetrahedron Lett. 2002, 43, 3565–3568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Jo, Y.-J.; Cho, I.H.; Song, C.K.; Shin, H.W.; Kim, Y.-S. Comparison of Fermented Soybean Paste (Doenjang) Prepared by Different Methods Based on Profiling of Volatile Compounds. J. Food Sci. 2011, 76, C368–C379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. Teng, Q.-H.; Xu, Y.-L.; Liang, Y.; Wang, H.-S.; Wang, Y.-C.; Pan, Y.-M. Transition Metal-Free Synthesis of 3-Alkynylpyrrole-2-carboxylates via Michael Addition/Intramolecular Cyclodehydration. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2016, 358, 1897–1902. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Tan, X.-C.; Liang, Y.; Bao, F.-P.; Wang, H.-S.; Pan, Y.-M. Silver-Mediated C–H Bond Functionalization: One-Pot to Construct Substituted Indolizines from 2-Alkylazaarenes with Alkynes. Tetrahedron 2014, 70, 6717–6722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Wang, X.; Li, S.-Y.; Pan, Y.-M.; Wang, H.-S.; Liang, H.; Chen, Z.-F.; Qin, X.-H. Samarium(III)-Catalyzed C (sp3)–H Bond Activation: Synthesis of Indolizines via C–C and C–N Coupling between 2-Alkylazaarenes and Propargylic Alcohols. Org. Lett. 2014, 16, 580–583. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. Liu, P.; Pan, Y.-M.; Xu, Y.-L.; Wang, H.-S. PTSA-Catalyzed Mannich-Type–Cyclization–Oxidation Tandem Reactions: One-Pot Synthesis of 1, 3, 5-Substituted Pyrazoles from Aldehydes, Hydrazines and Alkynes. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2012, 10, 4696–4698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. Wang, X.; Pan, Y.-M.; Huang, X.-C.; Mao, Z.-Y.; Wang, H.-S. A novel methodology for synthesis of dihydropyrazole derivatives as potential anticancer agents. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2014, 12, 2028–2032. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  75. Pan, Y.-M.; Zheng, F.-J.; Lin, H.-X.; Zhan, Z.-P. Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Propargylation/Cycloisomerization Tandem Reaction: One-Pot Synthesis of Substituted Oxazoles from Propargylic Alcohols and Amides. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 3148–3151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  76. Xie, H.-Z.; Gao, Q.; Liang, Y.; Wang, H.-S.; Pan, Y.-M. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Benzoxazoles by the Cleavage Reaction of Carbon–Carbon Triple Bonds with o-Aminophenol. Green Chem. 2014, 16, 2132–2135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Wang, Y.-C.; Wang, H.-S.; Huang, G.-B.; Huang, F.-P.; Hu, K.; Pan, Y.-M. A One-Pot Approach to 4,5-Dihydropyrazoles from Ketones, Arylacetylenes, and Hydrazines. Tetrahedron 2014, 70, 1621–1628. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Qiu, Y.-F.; Yang, F.; Qiu, Z.-H.; Zhong, M.-J.; Wang, L.-J.; Ye, Y.-Y.; Song, B.; Liang, Y.-M. Brønsted Acid Catalyzed and NIS-Promoted Cyclization of Diynones: Selective Synthesis of 4-Pyrone, 4-Pyridone, and 3-Pyrrolone Derivatives. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 12018–12028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  79. Yang, F.; Qiu, Y.-F.; Ji, K.-G.; Niu, Y.-N.; Ali, S.; Liang, Y.-M. Divergent Synthesis of Benzene Derivatives: Brønsted Acid Catalyzed and Iodine-Promoted Tandem Cyclization of 5,2-Enyn-1-ones. J. Org. Chem. 2012, 77, 9029–9037. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  80. Yang, F.; Ji, K.-G.; Zhao, S.-C.; Ali, S.; Ye, Y.-Y.; Liu, X.-Y.; Liang, Y.-M. Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Cycloisomerizations of 5,2-Enyne-1-ones: Highly Regioselective Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-4H-pyran-4-ones. Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 6470–6474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  81. Morisaki, Y.; Luu, T.; Tykwinski, R.R. A One-Pot Synthesis and Functionalization of Polyynes. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 689–692. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  82. Knight, J.D.; Metz, C.R.; Beam, C.F.; Pennington, W.T.; Derveer, D.G.V. New Strong Base Synthesis of Symmetrical 1,5-Diaryl-1,3,5-pentanetriones from Acetone and Benzoate Esters. Synth. Commun. 2008, 38, 2465–2482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Aziz, S.; Mahnaz, S. Synthesis of Pyrone Carbaldehydes, Pyrone Sulfonium Ylides and Related Epoxides. J. Heterocycl. Chem. 2009, 46, 268–272. [Google Scholar]
  84. Jobour, A.; Nazar, H.; Shandala, M.Y. Synthesis and Spectral Data of Some Heterocyclic Compounds. The Reaction of Arylpropiolic Esters with Tetralones and Acetylcyclopropane. J. Heterocycl. Chem. 1980, 17, 941–944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Toshiaki, S.; Taichi, O.; Kiyomi, S.; Yosihiro, N.; Mitsuru, H.; Yoshie, H.; Jun, T.; Takehiro, S. Thermal Addition Reaction of Aroylketene with 1-Aryl-1-trimethylsilyloxyethylenes: Aromatic Substituent Effects of Aroylketene and Aryltrimethylsilyloxyethylene on Their Reactivity. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1996, 44, 956–966. [Google Scholar]
  86. Groundwater, P.W.; Hibbs, D.E.; Hursthousea, M.B.; Nyerges, M. Synthesis and Reactions of Reduced Flavones. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1997, 163–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  • Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds 2a2r, 2a-d and 2a-o18 are available from the authors.
Figure 1. 4-Pyrones disclosed as biologically active organic molecules.
Figure 1. 4-Pyrones disclosed as biologically active organic molecules.
Molecules 22 00109 g001
Scheme 1. Synthesis of 4-pyrone derivatives a,b. a Reaction conditions: 1 (0.5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.), H2O (1 mL), at 100 °C, 36 h; b Isolated yields.
Scheme 1. Synthesis of 4-pyrone derivatives a,b. a Reaction conditions: 1 (0.5 mmol), TfOH (1 equiv.), H2O (1 mL), at 100 °C, 36 h; b Isolated yields.
Molecules 22 00109 sch001
Scheme 2. Control experiments.
Scheme 2. Control experiments.
Molecules 22 00109 sch002
Scheme 3. Proposed mechanism.
Scheme 3. Proposed mechanism.
Molecules 22 00109 sch003
Scheme 4. Gram-scale synthesis.
Scheme 4. Gram-scale synthesis.
Molecules 22 00109 sch004
Scheme 5. Synthesis of Compounds 2.
Scheme 5. Synthesis of Compounds 2.
Molecules 22 00109 sch005
Scheme 6. Deuterium Labeling Experiments.
Scheme 6. Deuterium Labeling Experiments.
Molecules 22 00109 sch006
Scheme 7. O18-Labelling Experiment.
Scheme 7. O18-Labelling Experiment.
Molecules 22 00109 sch007
Scheme 8. Gram-Scale Synthesis.
Scheme 8. Gram-Scale Synthesis.
Molecules 22 00109 sch008
Table 1. Optimization of reaction conditions a.
Table 1. Optimization of reaction conditions a.
Molecules 22 00109 i001
EntryCatalystTime (h)Yield (%) b
1TfOH2470
2CH3COOH240
3PTSA2450
4HCl240
5H3PO4240
6PhCOOH2410
7 cTfOH24 10
8 dTfOH2450
9 eTfOH2480
10 fTfOH2420
11 gTfOH2475
12TfOH3683
a Reaction conditions: 1a (0.5 mmol), catalyst (1 equiv.), H2O (1 mL), at 100 °C; b Isolated yields; c TfOH (0.2 equiv.); d TfOH (0.5 equiv.); e TfOH (2 equiv.); f At 80 °C; g The reaction was carried out in a sealed tube at 130 °C.
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top