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Tamaractam, a New Bioactive Lactam from Tamarix ramosissima, Induces Apoptosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

1
School of Basic Medical Science, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
2
School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
3
China National Center for Biotechnology Development, Beijing 100039, China
4
School of Chinese Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
5
Key Laboratory of Hui Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Yinchuan 750004, China
6
Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
7
Ningxia Engineering and Technology Research Center for Modernization of Hui Medicine, Yinchuan 750004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010096
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 1 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Chemical investigation of Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb, a traditional herbal medicine used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment in northwest China, led to the discovery of a new phenolic aromatic rings substituted lactam, tamaractam (1), together with the previously reported compounds cis-N-feruloyl-3-O-methyldopamine (2) and trans-N-feruloyl-3-O-methyldopamine (3). The structures of the compounds were determined by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) and 1D and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as comparison with the literature data. The effects of the three compounds on the viability of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Pro-apoptosis effect of compound 1 in RA-FLS was further investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, activated caspase-3/7 level assessment using luminescence assay, and sub-G1 fraction measurement using flow cytometry. It was found that these three compounds displayed variable proliferation inhibitory activity in RA-FLS, and compound 1 exhibited the strongest effect. Compound 1 could remarkably induce cellular apoptosis of RA-FLS, increase activated caspase-3/7 levels, and significantly increase sub-G1 fraction in the cell cycle. The results suggested that compound 1 may inhibit the proliferation of RA-FLS through apoptosis-inducing effect, and these compounds may contribute to the anti-RA effect of T. ramosissima. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tamarix ramosissima; tamaractam; rheumatoid arthritis; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; growth inhibitory activity; apoptosis Tamarix ramosissima; tamaractam; rheumatoid arthritis; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; growth inhibitory activity; apoptosis
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Yao, Y.; Jiang, C.-S.; Sun, N.; Li, W.-Q.; Niu, Y.; Han, H.-Q.; Miao, Z.-H.; Zhao, X.-X.; Zhao, J.; Li, J. Tamaractam, a New Bioactive Lactam from Tamarix ramosissima, Induces Apoptosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes. Molecules 2017, 22, 96.

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