Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
Alkylglycerol Derivatives, a New Class of Skin Penetration Modulators
Previous Article in Journal
Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting
Article

NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-903, SP, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE, Brazil
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Osun State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Yogeshvar Kalia
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010104
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 8 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Delivery Systems: Current Landscape and Trends)
Ruthenium (Ru) complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO) is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO). The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2) skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis (VE), and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ruthenium complex; iontophoresis; nitric oxide; in vitro skin penetration ruthenium complex; iontophoresis; nitric oxide; in vitro skin penetration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

De Santana, D.C.A.S.; Dias, K.; Souza, J.G.; Ogunjimi, A.T.; Souza, M.C.; Silva, R.S.; Lopez, R.F.V. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin. Molecules 2017, 22, 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010104

AMA Style

De Santana DCAS, Dias K, Souza JG, Ogunjimi AT, Souza MC, Silva RS, Lopez RFV. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin. Molecules. 2017; 22(1):104. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010104

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Santana, Danielle C.A.S.; Dias, Karina; Souza, Joel G.; Ogunjimi, Abayomi T.; Souza, Marina C.; Silva, Roberto S.; Lopez, Renata F.V. 2017. "NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin" Molecules 22, no. 1: 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010104

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop