Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
Alkylglycerol Derivatives, a New Class of Skin Penetration Modulators
Previous Article in Journal
Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 104;

NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-903, SP, Brazil
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE, Brazil
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Osun State, Nigeria
The two authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yogeshvar Kalia
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 8 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Delivery Systems: Current Landscape and Trends)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2657 KB, uploaded 10 January 2017]   |  


Ruthenium (Ru) complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO) is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO). The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2) skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis (VE), and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ruthenium complex; iontophoresis; nitric oxide; in vitro skin penetration ruthenium complex; iontophoresis; nitric oxide; in vitro skin penetration

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

de Santana, D.C.A.S.; Dias, K.; Souza, J.G.; Ogunjimi, A.T.; Souza, M.C.; Silva, R.S.; Lopez, R.F.V. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin. Molecules 2017, 22, 104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top