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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 100;

Antibacterial Activity of Neat Chitosan Powder and Flakes

Research Center for High Performance Polymer and Composite Systems (CREPEC), Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry, Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 6128, Station Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alex Cavallaro, Krasimir Vasilev and Peter Zilmc
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 6 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Materials and Coatings)
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This study investigates the antibacterial activity of neat chitosan powder and flakes against three different bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus, which are frequent causes of food spoilage. The effect of chitosan concentration and purity, as well as the influence of temperature, ionic strength (salt) and impact of a solid physical support in the medium are examined. Results show that the antibacterial activity of neat chitosan: (i) requires partial solubilisation; (ii) can be promoted by environmental factors such as adequate temperature range, ionic strength and the presence of a solid physical support that may facilitate the attachment of bacteria; (iii) depends on bacterial species, with a sensitivity order of E. coli > L. innocua > S. aureus; and (iv) increases with chitosan concentration, up to a critical point above which this effect decreases. The latter may be due to remaining proteins in chitosan acting as nutrients for bacteria therefore limiting its antibacterial activity. These results on the direct use of chitosan powder and flakes as potential antimicrobial agents for food protection at pH values lower than the chitosan pKa (6.2–6.7) are promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; antibacterial activity; E. coli; L. innocua; S. aureus chitosan; antibacterial activity; E. coli; L. innocua; S. aureus

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ardila, N.; Daigle, F.; Heuzey, M.-C.; Ajji, A. Antibacterial Activity of Neat Chitosan Powder and Flakes. Molecules 2017, 22, 100.

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