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Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians)

Laboratory of Aquatic Biomedicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151742, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1108;
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
PDF [1298 KB, uploaded 24 August 2016]


Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters were assessed (total hemocyte counts (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and nitric oxide (NO) in the hemolymph of scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations of OA (50, 100, and 500 nM). Moreover, the expression of immune-system-related genes (CLT-6, FREP, HSP90, MT, and Cu/ZnSOD) was also measured. Results showed that ROS, MDA, and NO levels and LDH activity were enhanced after exposure to different concentrations of OA; however, both THC and GSH decreased between 24–48 hpe. The expression of immune-system-related genes was also assessed at different time points during the exposure period. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to OA had negative effects on immune system function, increased oxygenic stress, and disrupted metabolism of bay scallops. View Full-Text
Keywords: okadaic acid; harmful algal blooms; bay scallop; Argopecten irradians; immune response okadaic acid; harmful algal blooms; bay scallop; Argopecten irradians; immune response

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chi, C.; Giri, S.S.; Jun, J.W.; Kim, H.J.; Yun, S.; Kim, S.G.; Park, S.C. Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians). Molecules 2016, 21, 1108.

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