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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 605;

Self-resistance in Streptomyces, with Special Reference to β-Lactam Antibiotics

HO Bio Institute, 33-9, Yushima-2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0034, Japan
Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 522-1, Noshio-2, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588, Japan
Academic Editor: Peter J. Rutledge
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
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Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, β-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Streptomyces are explored mainly by phylogenetic analyses from the viewpoint of self-resistance. Although PBPs are more important than β-lactamases in self-resistance, phylogenetically diverse β-lactamases exist in Streptomyces. While class A β-lactamases are mostly detected in their enzyme activity, over two to five times more classes B and C β-lactamase genes are identified at the whole genomic level. These genes can subsequently be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. As for PBPs, two pairs of low affinity PBPs protect Streptomyces from the attack of self-producing and other environmental β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs with PASTA domains are detectable only in class A PBPs in Actinobacteria with the exception of Streptomyces. None of the Streptomyces has PBPs with PASTA domains. However, one of class B PBPs without PASTA domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase with four PASTA domains are located in adjacent positions in most Streptomyces. These class B type PBPs are involved in the spore wall synthesizing complex and probably in self-resistance. Lastly, this paper emphasizes that the resistance mechanisms in Streptomyces are very hard to deal with, despite great efforts in finding new antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-lactam antibiotics; β-lactamase; penicillin-binding protein; self-resistance; antibiotic resistance; Streptomyces; Actinobacteria β-lactam antibiotics; β-lactamase; penicillin-binding protein; self-resistance; antibiotic resistance; Streptomyces; Actinobacteria

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ogawara, H. Self-resistance in Streptomyces, with Special Reference to β-Lactam Antibiotics. Molecules 2016, 21, 605.

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