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Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1470;

In Vitro Photodynamic Effect of Phycocyanin against Breast Cancer Cells

Marine-Integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Center for Marine-Integrated Biotechnology (BK21 Plus), Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Norbert Lange
Received: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy)
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C-phycocyanin, a natural blue-colored pigment-protein complex was explored as a novel photosensitizer for use in low-level laser therapy under 625-nm laser illumination. C-phycocyanin produced singlet oxygen radicals and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were raised in extended time of treatment. It did not exhibit any visible toxic effect in the absence of light. Under 625-nm laser irradiation, c-phycocyanin generated cytotoxic stress through ROS induction, which killed MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depending on concentrations. Different fluorescent staining of laser-treated cells explored apoptotic cell death characteristics like the shrinking of cells, cytoplasmic condensation, nuclei cleavage, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. In conclusion, phycocyanin is a non-toxic fluorescent pigment that can be used in low-level light therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: phycocyanin; photodynamic therapy; laser therapy; reactive oxygen species phycocyanin; photodynamic therapy; laser therapy; reactive oxygen species

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bharathiraja, S.; Seo, H.; Manivasagan, P.; Santha Moorthy, M.; Park, S.; Oh, J. In Vitro Photodynamic Effect of Phycocyanin against Breast Cancer Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 1470.

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