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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mildly versus Severely Affected mdx Mouse Skeletal Muscles Identifies Annexin, Lamin, and Vimentin as Universal Dystrophic Markers

1
Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland
2
National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
3
Institute of Pathophysiology, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17495 Karlsburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonidas A. Phylactou
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11317-11344; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611317
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
The primary deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in complex changes in dystrophic muscles. In order to compare the degree of secondary alterations in differently affected subtypes of skeletal muscles, we have conducted a global analysis of proteome-wide changes in various dystrophin-deficient muscles. In contrast to the highly degenerative mdx diaphragm muscle, which showed considerable alterations in 35 distinct proteins, the spectrum of mildly to moderately dystrophic skeletal muscles, including interosseus, flexor digitorum brevis, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscle, exhibited a smaller number of changed proteins. Compensatory mechanisms and/or cellular variances may be responsible for differing secondary changes in individual mdx muscles. Label-free mass spectrometry established altered expression levels for diaphragm proteins associated with contraction, energy metabolism, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and the cellular stress response. Comparative immunoblotting verified the differences in the degree of secondary changes in dystrophin-deficient muscles and showed that the up-regulation of molecular chaperones, the compensatory increase in proteins of the intermediate filaments, the fibrosis-related increase in collagen levels and the pathophysiological decrease in calcium binding proteins is more pronounced in mdx diaphragm as compared to the less severely affected mdx leg muscles. Annexin, lamin, and vimentin were identified as universal dystrophic markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: diaphragm; dystrophin; dystrophinopathy; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; extensor digitorum longus; flexor digitorum brevis; interosseus; muscle pathology; soleus; skeletal muscle proteome diaphragm; dystrophin; dystrophinopathy; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; extensor digitorum longus; flexor digitorum brevis; interosseus; muscle pathology; soleus; skeletal muscle proteome
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Holland, A.; Henry, M.; Meleady, P.; Winkler, C.K.; Krautwald, M.; Brinkmeier, H.; Ohlendieck, K. Comparative Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mildly versus Severely Affected mdx Mouse Skeletal Muscles Identifies Annexin, Lamin, and Vimentin as Universal Dystrophic Markers. Molecules 2015, 20, 11317-11344.

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