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Open AccessArticle

γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

1
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), UKM Medical Center, Jalan Ya'acob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Malaysia
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Ya'acob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel Ferreira
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10280-10297; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200610280
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) and 6-gingerol (6G) in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0–150 µg/mL) and 6G (0–300 µg/mL) on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02,) and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10) apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05) after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3); 6-gingerol (6G); synergistic; HT-29; SW837 human colorectal cancer cells γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3); 6-gingerol (6G); synergistic; HT-29; SW837 human colorectal cancer cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Md Yusof, K.; Makpol, S.; Jamal, R.; Harun, R.; Mokhtar, N.; Wan Ngah, W.Z. γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells. Molecules 2015, 20, 10280-10297.

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