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Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20079-20106;

Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

Allelopathy Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Campus de Excelencia Internacional (ceiA3), Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, C/República Saharaui n 7, 11510 Puerto Real, (Cádiz), Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pascal Richomme
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
PDF [3152 KB, uploaded 6 November 2015]


The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones) showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus by-products; flavonoids; synergism; isobolography; DPPH; coleoptiles citrus by-products; flavonoids; synergism; isobolography; DPPH; coleoptiles

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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García, B.F.; Torres, A.; Macías, F.A. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts. Molecules 2015, 20, 20079-20106.

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