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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Liguzinediol Mono- and Dual Ester Prodrugs as Promising Inotropic Agents

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18057-18072;
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs)
The potent positive inotropic effect, together with the relatively low safety risk of liguzinediol (LZDO), relative to currently available inotropic drugs, has prompted us to intensively research and develop LZDO as a potent positive inotropic agent. In this study, to obtain LZDO alternatives for oral chronic administration, a series of long-chain fatty carboxylic mono- and dual-esters of LZDO were synthesized, and preliminarily evaluated for physicochemical properties and bioconversion. Enhanced lipophilic properties and decreased solubility of the prodrugs were observed as the side chain length increased. All esters showed conspicuous chemical stability in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Moreover, the enzymatic hydrolysis of esters in human plasma and human liver microsomes confirmed that the majority of esters were converted to LZDO, with release profiles that varied due to the size and structure of the side chain. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of monopivaloyl (M5), monodecyl (M10) and monododecyl (M12) esters demonstrated the evidently extended half-lives relative to LZDO dosed alone. In particular the monopivaloyl ester M5 exhibited an optimal pharmacokinetic profile with appropriate physiochemical characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: liguzinediol; prodrug; physicochemical properties; bioconversion; pharmacokinetics liguzinediol; prodrug; physicochemical properties; bioconversion; pharmacokinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Li, W.; Wen, H.-M.; Zhu, H.-H.; Wang, T.-L.; Cheng, D.; Yang, K.-D.; Chen, Y.-Q. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Liguzinediol Mono- and Dual Ester Prodrugs as Promising Inotropic Agents. Molecules 2014, 19, 18057-18072.

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