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Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan
Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
Department of Hospitality, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2014, 19(1), 316-326;
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 14 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
PDF [1896 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer. View Full-Text
Keywords: American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis American ginseng; gastric ulcer; inflammation; apoptosis

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Huang, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-M.; Wang, D.-C.; Chiu, C.-C.; Lin, W.-T.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsu, M.-C. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model. Molecules 2014, 19, 316-326.

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