Next Article in Journal
Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents
Previous Article in Journal
Two New Coumarins from Micromelum falcatum with Cytotoxicity and Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improved Methods for Thermal Rearrangement of Alicyclic α-Hydroxyimines to α-Aminoketones: Synthesis of Ketamine Analogues as Antisepsis Candidates
Open AccessReview

Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 6953-6981; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17066953
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 18 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well-researched and includes antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities, amongst others. In addition, it is widely used in agricultural applications to protect foods from micro-organisms during storage, which might have an effect on human health, and as a pesticide and fumigant. As a functional ingredient, it is included in many dental preparations and it has also been shown to enhance skin permeation of various drugs. Eugenol is considered safe as a food additive but due to the wide range of different applications, extensive use and availability of clove oil, it is pertinent to discuss the general toxicity with special reference to contact dermatitis. This review summarises the pharmacological, agricultural and other applications of eugenol with specific emphasis on mechanism of action as well as toxicity data. View Full-Text
Keywords: clove oil; Eugenia caryophyllata; eugenol; mechanism of action; pharmacological activity; Syzygium aromaticum; toxicity clove oil; Eugenia caryophyllata; eugenol; mechanism of action; pharmacological activity; Syzygium aromaticum; toxicity
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kamatou, G.P.; Vermaak, I.; Viljoen, A.M. Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule. Molecules 2012, 17, 6953-6981.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop