Next Article in Journal
Synthesis of Ginkgolic Acid Analogues and Evaluation of Their Molluscicidal Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Dehydration of (Perfluoroalkyl)tetramethylcyclopentenols
Previous Article in Special Issue
Essential Oils and Their Constituents: Anticonvulsant Activity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2011, 16(5), 4045-4058;

The Effects of Co-Treatment of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid and 15-Deoxy-Δ (12,14)-prostaglandin J2 on Microglial Activation

Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98223, USA
Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, the Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2011 / Revised: 26 April 2011 / Accepted: 16 May 2011 / Published: 17 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroactive Compounds)
Full-Text   |   PDF [539 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]   |  


Microglial activation plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal function and contributes to the development of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by an endogenous agonist, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), has been shown to be beneficial in many diseases with aberrant immune responses. Here, we report that co-treatment with 15d-PGJ2 and its synergistic partner, 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), may modulate, but not abolish, microglial immune response activated by β-amyloid (Aβ) and interferon gamma (IFNγ). The co-treatment of RA and 15d-PGJ2 inhibited Aβ/IFNγ-activated immune response in primary microglia, as evidenced by suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); and the effect was not affected by treatment with a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662. Data suggest that PPARγ activation may not contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of the co-treatment. The co-treatment promoted microglial Aβ clearance in cultures; and the effect can be prevented by blocking PPARγ activation using GW9662. The effects of the co-treatment on Aβ clearance may be PPARγ-dependent. Intriguingly, secretion of microglial pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF) was inhibited by Aβ/IFNg treatment in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that secretion of microglial pro-NGF may not contribute to the Ab/IFNg-activated microglial immune response. Taken together, the co-treatment may be beneficial for AD therapy; however, our data suggest that multiple mechanisms may underlie the beneficial effects of the co-treatment and are not limited to PPARγ activation only. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Aβ; microglia; PPARγ; neuroinflammation; pro-NGF Alzheimer’s disease; ; microglia; PPARγ; neuroinflammation; pro-NGF

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, P.-C.; Tsay, H.-J.; Montine, T.J.; Shie, F.-S. The Effects of Co-Treatment of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid and 15-Deoxy-Δ (12,14)-prostaglandin J2 on Microglial Activation. Molecules 2011, 16, 4045-4058.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top