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Article

Information Hiding in the DICOM Message Service and Upper Layer Service with Entropy-Based Detection

1
Faculty of Computer Science, “Goce Delcev” University, 2000 Shtip, North Macedonia
2
Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
3
Institute of Applied Mathematics and Information Technologies, 16149 Genova, Italy
4
Center for Technology and Transfer, Worms University of Applied Sciences, 67549 Worms, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Tzu Chuen Lu and David Megías
Entropy 2022, 24(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020176
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 18 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Based Data Hiding and Its Applications)
The DICOM (Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine) standard provides a framework for a diagnostically-accurate representation, processing, transfer, storage and display of medical imaging data. Information hiding in DICOM is currently limited to the application of digital media steganography and watermarking techniques on the media parts of DICOM files, as well as text steganographic techniques for embedding information in metadata of DICOM files. To improve the overall security of the DICOM standard, we investigate its susceptibility to network steganographic techniques. To this aim, we develop several network covert channels that can be created by using a specific transport mechanism – the DICOM Message Service and Upper Layer Service. The bandwidth, undetectability and robustness of the proposed covert channels are evaluated, and potential countermeasures are suggested. Moreover, a detection mechanism leveraging entropy-based metrics is introduced and its performance has been assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: network steganography; medical informatics; HIS; PACS; CT scanners; MRI scanners; ultrasound network steganography; medical informatics; HIS; PACS; CT scanners; MRI scanners; ultrasound
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mileva, A.; Velinov, A.; Dimitrova, V.; Caviglione, L.; Wendzel, S. Information Hiding in the DICOM Message Service and Upper Layer Service with Entropy-Based Detection. Entropy 2022, 24, 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020176

AMA Style

Mileva A, Velinov A, Dimitrova V, Caviglione L, Wendzel S. Information Hiding in the DICOM Message Service and Upper Layer Service with Entropy-Based Detection. Entropy. 2022; 24(2):176. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020176

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mileva, Aleksandra, Aleksandar Velinov, Vesna Dimitrova, Luca Caviglione, and Steffen Wendzel. 2022. "Information Hiding in the DICOM Message Service and Upper Layer Service with Entropy-Based Detection" Entropy 24, no. 2: 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020176

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