# On Explaining Quantum Correlations: Causal vs. Non-Causal

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Non-Local Quantum Correlations and Causal Explanation

P

_{a}

_{, b}(l, r|λ) = P

_{a}

^{1}(l|λ) · P

_{b}

^{2}(r|λ)

## 3. Non-Causal Explanations

## 4. Conclusions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Bub, J. Bananaworld: Quantum Mechanics for Primates; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Price, H. The philosophy and physics of affecting the past. Synthese
**1984**, 61, 299–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Faye, J. Backward Causation. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Zalta, E.N., Ed.; Available online: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/causation-backwards/ (accessed on 1 March 2021).
- Berkovitz, J. On time, causation and explanation in the causally symmetric Bohmian model of quantum mechanics. In Time of Nature and the Nature of Time; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 139–172. [Google Scholar]
- Wood, C.J.; Spekkens, R.W. The lesson of causal discovery algorithms for quantum correlations: Causal explanations of Bell-inequality violations require fine-tuning. New J. Phys.
**2015**, 17, 033002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Evans, P.W. Quantum Causal Models, Faithfulness, and Retrocausality. Br. J. Philos. Sci.
**2018**, 69, 745–774. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Lewis, D. Philosophical Papers; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1986; Volume 2. [Google Scholar]
- Hofer-Szabó, G.; Rédei, M.; Szabó, L.E. The Principle of the Common Cause; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Hofer-Szabó, G.; Vecsernyés, P. Bell inequality and common causal explanation in algebraic quantum field theory. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys.
**2013**, 44, 404–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Hausman, D.M.; Woodward, J. Independence, Invariance and the Causal Markov Condition. Br. J. Philos. Sci.
**1999**, 50, 521–583. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Illari, P.; Russo, F. Causality: Philosophical Theory Meets Scientific Practice; Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Salmon, W. Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 1984. [Google Scholar]
- Dowe, P. Wesley Salmon’s process theory of causality and the conserved quantity theory. Philos. Sci.
**1992**, 59, 195–216. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Albert, D.Z. Elementary Quantum Metaphysics. In Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal; Cushing, J., Fine, A., Goldstein, S., Eds.; Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston, MA, USA, 1996; Volume 184, pp. 277–284. [Google Scholar]
- Allori, V.; Goldstein, S.; Tumulka, R.; Zanghì, N. On the common structure of bohmian mechanics and the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber theory: Dedicated to Giancarlo Ghirardi on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Br. J. Philos. Sci.
**2008**, 59, 353–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Benatti, F. Describing the macroscopic world: Closing the circle within the dynamical reduction program. Found. Phys.
**1995**, 25, 5–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Tumulka, R. A relativistic version of the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber model. J. Stat. Phys.
**2006**, 125, 825–844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Norsen, T. Einstein’s Boxes. Am. J. Phys.
**2005**, 73, 164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.; Rimini, A. Markov processes in Hilbert space and continuous spontaneous localization of systems of identical particles. Phys. Rev. A
**1990**, 42, 78–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Glennan, S. Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation. Philos. Sci.
**2002**, 69, S342–S353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Bechtel, W.; Abrahamsen, A. Explanation: A Mechanistic alternative. Stud. Hist. Phil. Biol. Biomed. Sci.
**2005**, 36, 421–441. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Craver, C.F.; Bechtel, W. Top-down Causation Without Top-down Causes. Biol. Philos.
**2006**, 22, 547–563. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Glennan, S. Mechanisms, Causes, and the Layered Model of the World. Philos. Phenomenol. Res.
**2010**, 81, 362–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kuhlmann, M.; Glennan, S. On the relation between quantum mechanical and neo-mechanistic ontologies and explanatory strategies. Eur. J. Philos. Sci.
**2014**, 4, 337–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Ismael, J.; Schaffer, J. Quantum holism: Nonseparability as common ground. Synthese
**2020**, 197, 4131–4160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hughes, R.I.G. Bell’s theorem, ideology, and structural explanation. In Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory; Cushing, J.T., McMullin, E., Eds.; University of Notre Dame Press: Notre Dame, IN, USA, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- Clifton, R. Structural Explanation in Quantum Theory. 1998, unpublished. Available online: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/91/ (accessed on 9 May 2021).
- Bokulich, A. How scientific models can explain. Synthese
**2009**, 180, 33–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dorato, M.; Felline, L. Scientific explanation and scientific structuralism. In Scientific Structuralism; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 161–176. [Google Scholar]
- Felline, L. Remarks on a structural account of scientific explanation. In EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 43–53. [Google Scholar]
- Felline, L. Scientific explanation between principle and constructive theories. Philos. Sci.
**2011**, 78, 989–1000. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Felline, L. Mechanisms meet structural explanation. Synthese
**2018**, 195, 99–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Huneman, P. Topological explanations and robustness in biological sciences. Synthese
**2010**, 177, 213–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Haslanger, S. What is a (social) structural explanation? Philos. Stud.
**2016**, 173, 113–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Brown, H.R.; Pooley, O. Minkowski space-time: A glorious non-entity. Philos. Found. Phys.
**2006**, 1, 67–89. [Google Scholar] - Clifton, R.; Bub, J.; Halvorson, H. Characterizing quantum theory in terms of information-theoretic constraints. Found. Phys.
**2003**, 33, 1561–1591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Bub, J. Why the quantum? Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part. B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys.
**2004**, 35, 241–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hagar, A.; Hemmo, M. Explaining the unobserved—Why quantum mechanics ain’t only about information. Found. Phys.
**2006**, 36, 1295–1324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Frauchiger, D.; Renner, R. Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself. Nat. Commun.
**2018**, 9, 3711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Bub, J. In defense of a “single-world” interpretation of quantum mechanics. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys.
**2018**, 72, 251–255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Felline, L. The Measurement Problem and two Dogmas about Quantum Mechanics. In Quantum, Probability, Logic; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2020; pp. 285–304. [Google Scholar]
- Janas, M.; Cuffaro, M.E.; Janssen, M. Understanding Quantum Raffles: Quantum Mechanics on an Information-Theoretic Approach: Structure and Interpretation; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, Forthcoming.
- Koberinski, A.; Müller, M.P. Quantum theory as a principle theory: Insights from an information-theoretic reconstruction. In Physical Perspectives on Computation, Computational Perspectives on Physics; Cuffaro, M.E., Fletcher, S.C., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2018; pp. 257–280. [Google Scholar]
- Felline, L. Quantum theory is not only about information. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys.
**2018**, 72, 256–265. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Bub, J. Foreword. In Understanding Quantum Raffles: Quantum Mechanics on an Information-Theoretic Approach: Structure and Interpretation; Janas, M., Cuffaro, M.E., Janssen, M., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, Forthcoming.
- Janssen, M. Drawing the line between kinematics and dynamics in special relativity. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys.
**2009**, 40, 26–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Silberstein, M.; Stuckey, W.M.; McDevitt, T. Beyond Causal Explanation: Einstein’s Principle Not Reichenbach’s. Entropy
**2021**, 23, 114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Felline, L.
On Explaining Quantum Correlations: Causal vs. Non-Causal. *Entropy* **2021**, *23*, 589.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050589

**AMA Style**

Felline L.
On Explaining Quantum Correlations: Causal vs. Non-Causal. *Entropy*. 2021; 23(5):589.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050589

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Felline, Laura.
2021. "On Explaining Quantum Correlations: Causal vs. Non-Causal" *Entropy* 23, no. 5: 589.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050589