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Article

The Vegetation–Climate System Complexity through Recurrence Analysis

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Centro de Estudios e Investigación para la Gestión de Riesgos Agrarios y Medioambientales (CEIGRAM), Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica Alimentaria y de Biosistemas (ETSIAAB), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Senda del Rey, 13, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Complex Systems Group, ETSIAAB, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro, no. 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Agricultural Production, ETSIAAB, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro, no. 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Applied Mathematics, ETSIAAB, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro, no. 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hocine Cherifi and Benjamin Renoust
Entropy 2021, 23(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050559
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
Multiple studies revealed that pasture grasslands are a time-varying complex ecological system. Climate variables regulate vegetation growing, being precipitation and temperature the most critical driver factors. This work aims to assess the response of two different Vegetation Indices (VIs) to the temporal dynamics of temperature and precipitation in a semiarid area. Two Mediterranean grasslands zones situated in the center of Spain were selected to accomplish this goal. Correlations and cross-correlations between VI and each climatic variable were computed. Different lagged responses of each VIs series were detected, varying in zones, the year’s season, and the climatic variable. Recurrence Plots (RPs) and Cross Recurrence Plots (CRPs) analyses were applied to characterise and quantify the system’s complexity showed in the cross-correlation analysis. RPs pointed out that short-term predictability and high dimensionality of VIs series, as well as precipitation, characterised this dynamic. Meanwhile, temperature showed a more regular pattern and lower dimensionality. CRPs revealed that precipitation was a critical variable to distinguish between zones due to their complex pattern and influence on the soil’s water balance that the VI reflects. Overall, we prove RP and CRP’s potential as adequate tools for analysing vegetation dynamics characterised by complexity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-correlation; recurrence plots; vegetation indices; grasslands cross-correlation; recurrence plots; vegetation indices; grasslands
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almeida-Ñauñay, A.F.; Benito, R.M.; Quemada, M.; Losada, J.C.; Tarquis, A.M. The Vegetation–Climate System Complexity through Recurrence Analysis. Entropy 2021, 23, 559. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050559

AMA Style

Almeida-Ñauñay AF, Benito RM, Quemada M, Losada JC, Tarquis AM. The Vegetation–Climate System Complexity through Recurrence Analysis. Entropy. 2021; 23(5):559. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050559

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almeida-Ñauñay, Andrés F., Rosa M. Benito, Miguel Quemada, Juan C. Losada, and Ana M. Tarquis 2021. "The Vegetation–Climate System Complexity through Recurrence Analysis" Entropy 23, no. 5: 559. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050559

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