# A Graph-Transformational Approach to Swarm Computation

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Graph Transformation

#### 2.1. Directed Edge-Labeled Graphs

#### 2.2. Graph Transformation Rules

- (1)
- Choose a match $g\left(L\right)$ of L in G subject to the identification condition, which requires that those items that are identified via g belong to the gluing graph K, i.e., ${g}_{E}\left(e\right)={g}_{E}\left({e}^{\prime}\right)$ for $e,{e}^{\prime}\in {E}_{L}$ implies $e={e}^{\prime}$ or $e,{e}^{\prime}\in {E}_{K}$. (Without the identification condition, the Parallelization Theorem below would not hold.)
- (2)
- Remove the edges of ${g}_{E}\left({E}_{L}\right)-{g}_{E}\left({E}_{K}\right)$ and call the resulting graph Z.
- (3)
- Add the right-hand side R to Z by gluing Z with R in $g\left(K\right)$ yielding the graph H with ${V}_{H}={V}_{Z}\uplus ({V}_{R}-{V}_{K})$ and ${E}_{H}={E}_{Z}\uplus ({E}_{R}-{E}_{K})$. The edges of Z keep their labels, sources, and targets so that $Z\subseteq H.$ The edges of R keep their labels; they also keep their sources and targets provided that those belong to ${V}_{R}-{V}_{K}.$ Otherwise, they are redirected to the image of their original source or target, i.e., ${s}_{H}\left(e\right)=g\left({s}_{R}\left(e\right)\right)$ for $e\in {E}_{R}-{E}_{K}$ with ${s}_{R}\left(e\right)\in {V}_{K},$ and ${t}_{H}\left(e\right)=g\left({t}_{R}\left(e\right)\right)$ for $e\in {E}_{R}-{E}_{K}$ with ${t}_{R}\left(e\right)\in {V}_{K}.$

#### 2.3. Parallel Rule Application

**Fact**

**1**

- Let $G\underset{p}{\u27f9}X$ be a direct derivation w.r.t. $g:L\to G$. Then there are direct derivations $G\underset{{r}_{i}}{\u27f9}{H}_{i}$ with the matching morphisms ${g}_{i}=g|{L}_{i}$ that are pairwise parallel independent where the morphism $g|{L}^{\prime}:{L}^{\prime}\to G$ denotes the restriction of g to ${L}^{\prime}$. for $g:L\to G$ and ${L}^{\prime}\subseteq L$.
- Let $G\underset{{r}_{i}}{\u27f9}{H}_{i}$ for $i=1,\dots ,n$ be direct derivations w.r.t. ${g}_{i}:{L}_{i}\to G$. Let each two of them be parallel independent. Then there is a direct derivation $G\underset{p}{\u27f9}X$ w.r.t. $g:L\to G$ defined by $g|{L}_{i}={g}_{i}$ for $i=1,\dots ,n$.

#### 2.4. Control Conditions and Graph Class Expressions

#### 2.5. Graph Transformation Units

## 3. Graph-Transformational Swarms

**Definition**

**1**

**Definition**

**2**

- Graphs and rules are mathematically well-understood and quite intuitive syntactic means to model algorithmic processes. Moreover, the additional use of control and cooperation conditions as well as graph-class expressions allows very flexible forms of regulation.
- Derivations as sequences of rule applications provide an operational semantics that is precise and reflects the computational intentions in a proper way.
- Based on the formally defined derivation steps and the lengths of derivations, the approach provides a proof-by-induction principle that allows one to prove properties of swarm computations like termination, correctness, efficiency, etc.
- In the area of graph transformation, one encounters several tools for the simulation, model checking and SAT-solving of graph transformation systems that can be adapted to graph-transformational swarms.
- And maybe most important, the Parallelization Theorem establishes a systematic and reliable handling of massive parallelism. In several swarm approaches, the simultaneous actions of swarm members are organized in a very simplistic way by avoiding any kind of conflict or are required, but not always guaranteed (cf. e.g., [18]). In contrast to that, the simultaneous actions of members of graph-transformational swarms is assured whenever the member rules are applicable and pairwise independent. Both can be checked locally and much more efficiently than the applicability of the corresponding parallel rule.

## 4. A Simple Ant Colony

## 5. Cellular Automata

**Example**

**1.**

**Theorem**

**1.**

## 6. Particle Swarm Optimization

- ${v}_{i(t+1)}={v}_{it}+{U}_{t}(0,{\varphi}_{1})\otimes (p{b}_{it}-{p}_{it})+{U}_{t}(0,{\varphi}_{2})\otimes (b{n}_{it}-{p}_{it}),$
- ${p}_{i(t+1)}={p}_{it}+{v}_{i(t+1)},$
- $p{b}_{i(t+1)}={p}_{i(t+1)}$ if $f\left({p}_{i(t+1)}\right)>f\left(p{b}_{it}\right)$ and $p{b}_{i(t+1)}=p{b}_{it}$ otherwise.

**Theorem**

**2.**

- In the framework of graph transformation, the usual underlying structures are finite graphs or infinite discrete graph in exceptional cases. But all the concepts employed in the paper work for arbitrary sets of nodes and edges including the set of real numbers, the Euclidean space of some dimension or other continuous domains. Nevertheless, we have decided to consider a discrete version of particle swarm optimization as we want to demonstrate the potential of the usual graph transformation rather than to introduce a new kind of graph transformation. Nevertheless, the latter may be an interesting topic of future research.
- Moreover, implementations of particle swarm models are always discretized. As long as the abstract models are continuous, testing is the only way to validate an implementation against the model. A discrete abstract model between a continuous model and the implementation may allow to prove general properties and to improve the trustworthiness of system development in this way.
- In the literature, one encounters applications of particle swarm optimization to solve discrete problems (see, e.g., [30,31,32,33]). In such a case, a discrete abstract model seems to be appropriate. The particles correspond to problem solutions and the velocity and position updates, as introduced above, are redefined to be applicable to the discrete space. The graph-transformational model $swarm\left(PS\right)$ above can also be adapted in the same way to solve discrete problems. In this case $space(N,f)$ and the operators in the rule $newvel$ should be adapted to the corresponding domains. Despite those changes all other components can be used unchanged

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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## Short Biography of Authors

**Larbi Abdenebaoui**is a postdoc researcher in the field of interactive systems with the focus on digital media processing and graph-based computation. Having a background in machine learning, he is exploring the combination of state-of-the-art methods of deep learning with swarm-inspired paradigms in order to perform content-based analysis, modelling and retrieval of image collections. The gained knowledge from this research is shared with students in lectures at the University of Oldenburg.

**Hans-Jörg Kreowski**is a retired professor for Theoretical Computer Science at the University of Bremen. His main research interests are in the areas of graph transformation and rule-based systems including Petri nets, DNA computing and reaction systems. His research concerns the theoretical foundation, the use of the approaches as modeling and analysis frameworks and the application in Software Engineering, Computer Graphics, Artificial Intelligence, and Logistics. Moreover, he spends some of his efforts to topics in Computer and Society. Readers are refered to www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/theorie (accessed on 06 April 2021) for more information.

**Sabine Kuske**is a lecturer and research assistant at the university of Bremen in Germany. She is interested in rule based graph transformation, Petri nets and graph algorithms. Readers can contact her at [email protected] or visit www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/kuske (accessed on 06 April 2021).

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Abdenebaoui, L.; Kreowski, H.-J.; Kuske, S.
A Graph-Transformational Approach to Swarm Computation. *Entropy* **2021**, *23*, 453.
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**AMA Style**

Abdenebaoui L, Kreowski H-J, Kuske S.
A Graph-Transformational Approach to Swarm Computation. *Entropy*. 2021; 23(4):453.
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**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Abdenebaoui, Larbi, Hans-Jörg Kreowski, and Sabine Kuske.
2021. "A Graph-Transformational Approach to Swarm Computation" *Entropy* 23, no. 4: 453.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23040453