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The World Is Not a Theorem

by 1 and 2,3,*
1
Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Campus of Cesena, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, I-47522 Cesena, Italy
3
European Centre for Living Technology, I-30123 Venezia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio M. Scarfone
Entropy 2021, 23(11), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23111467
Received: 5 October 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 November 2021 / Published: 6 November 2021
The evolution of the biosphere unfolds as a luxuriant generative process of new living forms and functions. Organisms adapt to their environment, exploit novel opportunities that are created in this continuous blooming dynamics. Affordances play a fundamental role in the evolution of the biosphere, for organisms can exploit them for new morphological and behavioral adaptations achieved by heritable variations and selection. This way, the opportunities offered by affordances are then actualized as ever novel adaptations. In this paper, we maintain that affordances elude a formalization that relies on set theory: we argue that it is not possible to apply set theory to affordances; therefore, we cannot devise a set-based mathematical theory to deduce the diachronic evolution of the biosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: diachronic evolution of the biosphere; affordance; set theory; incompleteness diachronic evolution of the biosphere; affordance; set theory; incompleteness
MDPI and ACS Style

Kauffman, S.; Roli, A. The World Is Not a Theorem. Entropy 2021, 23, 1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23111467

AMA Style

Kauffman S, Roli A. The World Is Not a Theorem. Entropy. 2021; 23(11):1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23111467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kauffman, Stuart, and Andrea Roli. 2021. "The World Is Not a Theorem" Entropy 23, no. 11: 1467. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23111467

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