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Review

Statistical and Proactive Analysis of an Inter-Laboratory Comparison: The Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin

1
Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Dipartimento FSN, Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Italy
2
Department of Statistics, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AE, UK
3
Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 00135 Torino, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Aziendale and Interdepartmental Centre for Robust Statistics, Università di Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
5
Independent Researcher, Via Fra Dolcino 19, 28100 Novara, Italy
6
Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2020, 22(9), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22090926
Received: 26 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Applied Statistical Mechanics)
We review the sampling and results of the radiocarbon dating of the archaeological cloth known as the Shroud of Turin, in the light of recent statistical analyses of both published and raw data. The statistical analyses highlight an inter-laboratory heterogeneity of the means and a monotone spatial variation of the ages of subsamples that suggest the presence of contaminants unevenly removed by the cleaning pretreatments. We consider the significance and overall impact of the statistical analyses on assessing the reliability of the dating results and the design of correct sampling. These analyses suggest that the 1988 radiocarbon dating does not match the current accuracy requirements. Should this be the case, it would be interesting to know the accurate age of the Shroud of Turin. Taking into account the whole body of scientific data, we discuss whether it makes sense to date the Shroud again. View Full-Text
Keywords: statistical methods; measurement and error theory; inter-laboratory data comparison; robust statistics statistical methods; measurement and error theory; inter-laboratory data comparison; robust statistics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Lazzaro, P.; Atkinson, A.C.; Iacomussi, P.; Riani, M.; Ricci, M.; Wadhams, P. Statistical and Proactive Analysis of an Inter-Laboratory Comparison: The Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin. Entropy 2020, 22, 926. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22090926

AMA Style

Di Lazzaro P, Atkinson AC, Iacomussi P, Riani M, Ricci M, Wadhams P. Statistical and Proactive Analysis of an Inter-Laboratory Comparison: The Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin. Entropy. 2020; 22(9):926. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22090926

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Lazzaro, Paolo, Anthony C. Atkinson, Paola Iacomussi, Marco Riani, Marco Ricci, and Peter Wadhams. 2020. "Statistical and Proactive Analysis of an Inter-Laboratory Comparison: The Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin" Entropy 22, no. 9: 926. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22090926

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