At the classical limit, a multi-stage, endoreversible Carnot cycle model of quantum heat engine (QHE) working with non-interacting harmonic oscillators systems is established in this paper. A simplified combined cycle, where all sub-cycles work at maximum power output (MPO), is analyzed under two types of combined form: constraint of cycle period or constraint of interstage heat current. The expressions of power and the corresponding efficiency under two types of combined constrains are derived. A general combined cycle, in which all sub-cycles run at arbitrary state, is further investigated under two types of combined constrains. By introducing the Lagrangian function, the MPO of two-stage combined QHE with different intermediate temperatures is obtained, utilizing numerical calculation. The results show that, for the simplified combined cycle, the total power decreases and heat exchange from hot reservoir increases under two types of constrains with the increasing number (N) of stages. The efficiency of the combined cycle decreases under the constraints of the cycle period, but keeps constant under the constraint of interstage heat current. For the general combined cycle, three operating modes, including single heat engine mode at low “temperature” (SM1), double heat engine mode (DM) and single heat engine mode at high “temperature” (SM2), appear as intermediate temperature varies. For the constraint of cycle period, the MPO is obtained at the junction of DM mode and SM2 mode. For the constraint of interstage heat current, the MPO keeps constant during DM mode, in which the two sub-cycles compensate each other.
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