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In Praise of Quantum Uncertainty
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Two Faced Janus of Quantum Nonlocality

International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden
Entropy 2020, 22(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22030303
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Probability and Randomness II)
This paper is a new step towards understanding why “quantum nonlocality” is a misleading concept. Metaphorically speaking, “quantum nonlocality” is Janus faced. One face is an apparent nonlocality of the Lüders projection and another face is Bell nonlocality (a wrong conclusion that the violation of Bell type inequalities implies the existence of mysterious instantaneous influences between distant physical systems). According to the Lüders projection postulate, a quantum measurement performed on one of the two distant entangled physical systems modifies their compound quantum state instantaneously. Therefore, if the quantum state is considered to be an attribute of the individual physical system and if one assumes that experimental outcomes are produced in a perfectly random way, one quickly arrives at the contradiction. It is a primary source of speculations about a spooky action at a distance. Bell nonlocality as defined above was explained and rejected by several authors; thus, we concentrate in this paper on the apparent nonlocality of the Lüders projection. As already pointed out by Einstein, the quantum paradoxes disappear if one adopts the purely statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). In the statistical interpretation of QM, if probabilities are considered to be objective properties of random experiments we show that the Lüders projection corresponds to the passage from joint probabilities describing all set of data to some marginal conditional probabilities describing some particular subsets of data. If one adopts a subjective interpretation of probabilities, such as QBism, then the Lüders projection corresponds to standard Bayesian updating of the probabilities. The latter represents degrees of beliefs of local agents about outcomes of individual measurements which are placed or which will be placed at distant locations. In both approaches, probability-transformation does not happen in the physical space, but only in the information space. Thus, all speculations about spooky interactions or spooky predictions at a distance are simply misleading. Coming back to Bell nonlocality, we recall that in a recent paper we demonstrated, using exclusively the quantum formalism, that CHSH inequalities may be violated for some quantum states only because of the incompatibility of quantum observables and Bohr’s complementarity. Finally, we explain that our criticism of quantum nonlocality is in the spirit of Hertz-Boltzmann methodology of scientific theories. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum nonlocality; Bell nonlocality; Einstein-Lüders nonlocality; projection postulate; state-transformation; probability conditioning; individual vs. statistical interpretations; quantum vs. classical superpositions; ontic-epistemic; spooky action vs. prediction at a distance quantum nonlocality; Bell nonlocality; Einstein-Lüders nonlocality; projection postulate; state-transformation; probability conditioning; individual vs. statistical interpretations; quantum vs. classical superpositions; ontic-epistemic; spooky action vs. prediction at a distance
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Khrennikov, A. Two Faced Janus of Quantum Nonlocality. Entropy 2020, 22, 303.

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