Empirical findings from cognitive psychology indicate that, in scenarios under high levels of uncertainty, many people tend to make irrational decisions. To address this problem, models based on quantum probability theory, such as the quantum-like Bayesian networks, have been proposed. However, this model makes use of a Bayes normalisation factor during probabilistic inference to convert the likelihoods that result from quantum interference effects into probability values. The interpretation of this operation is not clear and leads to extremely skewed intensity waves that make the task of prediction of these irrational decisions challenging. This article proposes the law of balance, a novel mathematical formalism for probabilistic inferences in quantum-like Bayesian networks, based on the notion of balanced intensity waves. The general idea is to balance the intensity waves resulting from quantum interference in such a way that, during Bayes normalisation, they cancel each other. With this representation, we also propose the law of maximum uncertainty, which is a method to predict these paradoxes by selecting the amplitudes of the wave with the highest entropy. Empirical results show that the law of balance together with the law of maximum uncertainty were able to accurately predict different experiments from cognitive psychology showing paradoxical or irrational decisions, namely in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game and the Two-Stage Gambling Game.
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