A method for constructing a stream gauge network that reflects upstream and downstream runoff characteristics is assessed. For the construction of an optimal stream gauge network, we develop representative unit hydrographs that reflect such characteristics based on actual rainfall–runoff analysis. Then, the unit hydrographs are converted to probability density functions for application to entropy theory. This allows a comparison between two cases: one that considers the upstream and downstream runoff characteristics of a core dam area in South Korea, and another that uses empirical formula, which is an approach that has been widely used for constructing the stream gauge network. The result suggests that the case of a stream gauge network that considers upstream and downstream runoff characteristics provides more information to deliver, although the number of selected stream gauge stations of this case is less than that of the case that uses the empirical formula. This is probably because the information delivered from the constructed stream gauge network well represents the runoff characteristics of the upstream and downstream stations. The study area, the Chungju Dam basin, requires 12 stream gauge stations out of the current total of 18 stations for an optimal network that reflects both upstream and downstream runoff characteristics.
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