Next Article in Journal
A Neutrosophic Forecasting Model for Time Series Based on First-Order State and Information Entropy of High-Order Fluctuation
Previous Article in Journal
The Solutions to the Uncertainty Problem of Urban Fractal Dimension Calculation
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Simple Method to Estimate Entropy and Free Energy of Atmospheric Gases from Their Action

1
Sydney Institute of Agriculture, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
QuickTest Technologies, PO Box 6285 North Ryde, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
3
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wollongbar, NSW 2447, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(5), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21050454
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Multidisciplinary Applications)
  |  
PDF [1494 KB, uploaded 20 May 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

A convenient practical model for accurately estimating the total entropy (ΣSi) of atmospheric gases based on physical action is proposed. This realistic approach is fully consistent with statistical mechanics, but reinterprets its partition functions as measures of translational, rotational, and vibrational action or quantum states, to estimate the entropy. With all kinds of molecular action expressed as logarithmic functions, the total heat required for warming a chemical system from 0 K (ΣSiT) to a given temperature and pressure can be computed, yielding results identical with published experimental third law values of entropy. All thermodynamic properties of gases including entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy, and Helmholtz energy are directly estimated using simple algorithms based on simple molecular and physical properties, without resource to tables of standard values; both free energies are measures of quantum field states and of minimal statistical degeneracy, decreasing with temperature and declining density. We propose that this more realistic approach has heuristic value for thermodynamic computation of atmospheric profiles, based on steady state heat flows equilibrating with gravity. Potentially, this application of an action principle can provide better understanding of emergent properties of many natural or evolving complex systems, including modelling of predictions for global warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: statistical mechanics; partition functions; translational entropy; rotational entropy; vibrational entropy; Gibbs and Helmholtz energies statistical mechanics; partition functions; translational entropy; rotational entropy; vibrational entropy; Gibbs and Helmholtz energies
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kennedy, I.; Geering, H.; Rose, M.; Crossan, A. A Simple Method to Estimate Entropy and Free Energy of Atmospheric Gases from Their Action. Entropy 2019, 21, 454.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top