The security of classical signature cryptography depends on solving some difficult mathematical problems, such as factoring large integers and solving the discrete logarithm. It is known that these problems will become rather simple with the emergence of quantum computers. The quantum algorithm proposed by Shor [

1] in 1994 can solve the problem of integer factorization in polynomial time. Accordingly, quantum cryptography will make a revolutionary impact on the classical one. One of the known examples of quantum cryptography is the quantum key distribution (QKD) [

2,

3,

4,

5], which offers a solution of the shared key exchange with information-theoretical security. Quite a few branches of QKD have attracted a great deal of attention, and many effective results have been proposed, including quantum private query (QPQ) [

6,

7,

8], quantum digital signature (QDS) [

9,

10,

11,

12,

13] and so on.

The first QDS scheme, which is analogous to the classical Lamport’s signature scheme, was proposed by Gottesman et al. [

9] in 2001. In 2002, Zeng et al. [

10] first proposed the arbitrated QDS scheme with GHZstates based on symmetric cryptography. In 2014, Dunjko et al. [

11] proposed the first QDS scheme with no quantum memory, which made the quantum signature feasible and practicable under the current quantum technology. Wallden et al. [

12] presented a QDS scheme with quantum-key-distribution components in 2015. In 2016, Amiri et al. [

13] proposed a QDS scheme that did not require trusted quantum channels and only relied on secret shared keys generated using QKD. With the proposal of the measurement device-independent (MDI) QKD by Lo et al. [

14], Puthoor et al. [

15] first presented an MDI-QDS scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. In 2017, Yin et al. [

16] and Roberts et al. [

17] made the attempt to implement experimentally the MDI-QDS.

The blind signature was first proposed by Chaum [

18] in 1982. The blind signature can effectively prevent the blind signer from getting the original message because of its blindness, so it has a wide range of applications in the fields of E-commerce and block-chain. So far, some quantum blind signature (QBS) schemes [

19,

20,

21,

22,

23,

24,

25,

26,

27,

28,

29,

30,

31,

32,

33] have been presented. In 2009, Wen et al. [

19] first proposed the weak QBS scheme based on EPRpairs. In 2010, Su et al. [

20] proposed a QBS scheme based on EPR with two-state vector formalism, and then, Yang et al. [

21] pointed out some attacks on Su’s scheme [

20] and proposed an enhanced one. However, Zhang et al. [

22] declared that the dishonest signer could obtain some secret keys in Yang’s improved scheme [

21]. In 2014, Khodambashi et al. [

23] proposed a sessional QBS based on EPR, where the message signature cannot be forged by the dishonest verifier. In 2015, Shi et al. [

24] proposed a new QBS scheme with unlinkability based on EPR and quantum teleportation. In 2017, Luo et al. [

25] pointed out a security loophole of forgery in Shi’s QBS scheme [

24]. With the

$\chi $-type entangled states, Yin et al. [

26] proposed a QBS scheme in 2012. With the GHZ states, Wang et al. [

27] proposed a QBS scheme in 2013. Zuo et al. [

28] found that the dishonest verifier could forge the blind signature in [

19,

26,

27]. Accordingly, Zuo et al. [

28] and Ribeiro et al. [

29] advised that a trusted center should be involved in QBS schemes. Based on offline trusted repositories, Ribeiro et al [

29] presented a perfectly secure QBS scheme, which used Bell states, unitary operations, and so on, in 2015. With the two-photon entangled coding matrix to pass the secret shared key, Lai et al. [

30] presented a QBS scheme in 2017. Besides the above QBS schemes with multiple photons, Wang et al. [

31] proposed a fair QBS scheme with a single photon in 2010. However, He et al. [

32] and Zou et al. [

33] found that this scheme was vulnerable to non-forgeability attack. All these QBS schemes [

19,

20,

21,

22,

23,

24,

25,

26,

27,

28,

29,

30,

31,

32,

33] are mainly divided into two broad categories: multi-photon entanglement QBS [

19,

20,

21,

22,

23,

24,

25,

26,

27,

28,

29,

30] and single-photon QBS [

31,

32,

33]. Unlike the proposed QBS schemes with the single photon in [

31,

32,

33], in this paper, we propose a new single-photon QBS scheme encoding with the indistinguishable BB84-state. To guarantee the unconditional security of the proposed scheme, we employ the quantum fingerprint [

34] and Zhang et al.’s improved key-controlled-“T” quantum one time pad (QOTP) [

35,

36] based on Boykin and Roychowdhury’s QOTP [

37]. In the proposed scheme, we give the hypothesis that a trusted arbitrator is known by all participants prior to the execution of the protocol. We give a proof of the correctness of the scheme. Security analyses show that the scheme satisfies all the properties of the blind signature: blindness, unforgeability, non-repudiation, unlinkability, and traceability.