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Open AccessArticle

Covariant Relativistic Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Multi-Component Systems

Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin, Germany
In memory of Robert Trostel.
Entropy 2019, 21(11), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21111034
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second Law: Survey and Application)
Non-equilibrium and equilibrium thermodynamics of an interacting component in a relativistic multi-component system is discussed covariantly by exploiting an entropy identity. The special case of the corresponding free component is considered. Equilibrium conditions and especially the multi-component Killing relation of the 4-temperature are discussed. Two axioms characterize the mixture: additivity of the energy momentum tensors and additivity of the 4-entropies of the components generating those of the mixture. The resulting quantities of a single component and of the mixture as a whole, energy, energy flux, momentum flux, stress tensor, entropy, entropy flux, supply and production are derived. Finally, a general relativistic 2-component mixture is discussed with respect to their gravitation generating energy–momentum tensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: general-covariant multi-component systems; entropy identity; entropy balance of a component of the mixture; entropy balance of the mixture; multi-temperature relaxation; equilibrium conditions: 4-temperature’s Killing relation; extended Belinfante/Rosenfeld procedure; 2-component plain-ghost mixture general-covariant multi-component systems; entropy identity; entropy balance of a component of the mixture; entropy balance of the mixture; multi-temperature relaxation; equilibrium conditions: 4-temperature’s Killing relation; extended Belinfante/Rosenfeld procedure; 2-component plain-ghost mixture
MDPI and ACS Style

Muschik, W. Covariant Relativistic Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Multi-Component Systems. Entropy 2019, 21, 1034.

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