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Open AccessArticle

ATP-Dependent Diffusion Entropy and Homogeneity in Living Cells

Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel
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Entropy 2019, 21(10), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100962
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statistical Mechanics and Mathematical Physics)
Intracellular dynamics is highly complex, and includes diffusion of poly-dispersed objects in a non-homogeneous, out-of-equilibrium medium. Assuming non-equilibrium steady-state, we developed a framework that relates non-equilibrium fluctuations to diffusion, and generalized entropy in cells. We employed imaging of live Jurkat T cells, and showed that active cells have higher diffusion parameters (Kα and α) and entropy relative to the same cells after ATP depletion. Kα and α were related in ATP-depleted cells while this relation was not apparent in untreated cells, probably due to non-equilibrium applied work. Next we evaluated the effect of intracellular diffusion and entropy on the cell content homogeneity, which was displayed by the extent of its liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS). Correlations between intracellular diffusion parameters, entropy and cell homogeneity could be demonstrated only in active cells while these correlations disappeared after ATP depletion. We conclude that non-equilibrium contributions to diffusivity and entropy by ATP-dependent mechanical work allow cells to control their content homogeneity and LLPS state. Such understanding may enable better intervention in extreme LLPS conditions associated with various cell malignancies and degenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: image analysis; diffusion; anomalous diffusion; mechanical fluctuations; cellular entropy; cellular malignancy; liquid-liquid phase separation image analysis; diffusion; anomalous diffusion; mechanical fluctuations; cellular entropy; cellular malignancy; liquid-liquid phase separation
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Wohl, I.; Sherman, E. ATP-Dependent Diffusion Entropy and Homogeneity in Living Cells. Entropy 2019, 21, 962.

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