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Equilibrium States in Open Quantum Systems

Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187 Dresden, Germany
Entropy 2018, 20(6), 441;
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coherence in Open Quantum Systems)
PDF [203 KB, uploaded 6 June 2018]


The aim of this paper is to study the question of whether or not equilibrium states exist in open quantum systems that are embedded in at least two environments and are described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator H . The eigenfunctions of H contain the influence of exceptional points (EPs) and external mixing (EM) of the states via the environment. As a result, equilibrium states exist (far from EPs). They are different from those of the corresponding closed system. Their wavefunctions are orthogonal even though the Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian. View Full-Text
Keywords: open quantum systems; non-Hermitian Hamilton operator; equilibrium state open quantum systems; non-Hermitian Hamilton operator; equilibrium state
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rotter, I. Equilibrium States in Open Quantum Systems. Entropy 2018, 20, 441.

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