The study of dense gases and liquids requires consideration of the interactions between the particles and the correlations created by these interactions. In this article, the N
-variable distribution function which maximizes the Uncertainty (Shannon’s information entropy) and admits as marginals a set of (N
−1)-variable distribution functions, is, by definition, free of N
-order correlations. This way to define correlations is valid for stochastic systems described by discrete variables or continuous variables, for equilibrium or non-equilibrium states and correlations of the different orders can be defined and measured. This allows building the grand-canonical expressions of the uncertainty valid for either a dilute gas system or a dense gas system. At equilibrium, for both kinds of systems, the uncertainty becomes identical to the expression of the thermodynamic entropy. Two interesting by-products are also provided by the method: (i) The Kirkwood superposition approximation (ii) A series of generalized superposition approximations. A theorem on the temporal evolution of the relevant uncertainty for molecular systems governed by two-body forces is proved and a conjecture closely related to this theorem sheds new light on the origin of the irreversibility of molecular systems. In this respect, the irreplaceable role played by the three-body interactions is highlighted.
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