# Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Generalities

#### 2.1. Notation

#### 2.2. Discrete-Time Markov Chains and Spike Train Statistics

#### 2.3. Detailed Balance Equations

#### 2.4. Information Entropy Rate and Information Entropy Production

## 3. Maximum Entropy Markov Chains

#### 3.1. Inference of the Maximum Entropy Markov Process

#### 3.2. Observables and Potentials

#### Additive Observables of Spike Trains

#### 3.3. Variational Principle

#### Statistical Inference

#### 3.4. Ruelle–Perron–Frobenius Transfer Operator

#### 3.5. Maximum Entropy Markov Chain for Finite Range Potentials

#### 3.6. IEP of the Inferred Markov Maximum Entropy Process

#### 3.7. Large Deviations for Observables of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains

#### 3.8. Large Deviations for the IEP

**Remark**

**1.**

#### Gallavotti–Cohen Fluctuation Theorem

## 4. Examples

#### 4.1. Example: Discrete Time Spiking Neuronal Network Model

- ${V}_{i}\left(t\right)<\theta $, for all $k=1,\dots ,N$. This corresponds to sub-threshold dynamics.
- There exists a k such that, ${V}_{k}\left(t\right)\ge \theta $. Corresponding to firing dynamics.

#### 4.2. MEMC Example: One Observable

#### 4.3. MEMC Example: Two Observables

#### 4.4. Example: Memoryless Potentials

#### 4.5. Example: 1-Time Step Markov with Random Coefficients

#### 4.6. Example: Kinetic Ising Model with Random Asymmetric Interactions

#### 4.7. Summary

## 5. Discussion

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

MEP | Maximum entropy principle |

MEMC | Maximum entropy Markov chain |

IEP | Information entropy production |

KSE | Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy |

IF | Integrate-and-Fire |

GLM | Generalized Linear model |

NESS | Non-equilibrium steady states |

## Symbol List

${\sigma}_{k}^{n}$ | Spiking state of neuron k at time n. |

${\sigma}^{n}$ | Spike pattern at time n |

${\sigma}^{{n}_{1},{n}_{2}}$ | Spike block from time ${n}_{1}$ to ${n}_{2}$. |

${A}_{T}\left(f\right)$ | Empirical Average value of the observable f considering T spike patterns. |

${\mathsf{\Sigma}}_{N}^{L}$ | Set of spike blocks of N neurons and length L. |

$\mathcal{S}\left[\mu \right]$ | Entropy of the probability measure $\mu $. |

$\mathcal{H}$ | Potential function. |

$\mathcal{P}\left[\mathcal{H}\right]$ | Free energy or topological pressure. |

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**Figure 1.**Plot of the average value of IEP for 500 realizations of the synaptic weight matrix for fixed $\alpha $ and $\beta $ in each case. We fix the following values of the parameters: $N=6$, $\gamma =0.2$, ${\sigma}_{b}=1$, $\theta =1$, ${I}_{i}=1$ $\forall i\in \{1,\dots ,6\}$. The components of the synaptic weight matrix ${W}_{ij}$ were drawn at random from a normalized Gaussian distribution. We plot the average value of IEP for 500 realizations of the synaptic weight matrix for fixed $\alpha $ and $\beta $ in each case.

**Figure 2.**IEP and KSE as a function of ${h}_{1}$. In this example, the detailed balance condition is only satisfied in the trivial case ${h}_{1}=0$, corresponding to the uniform distribution. In all other cases, we obtain a MEMC with positive IEP, that is a NESS.

**Figure 3.**Gallavotti–Cohen fluctuation theorem for the MEMC example with one observable at the parameter value ${h}_{1}=-1$. Left: We show the SCGF associated to $W,{\lambda}_{W}\left(k\right)$, the derivative at zero is the IEP of the MEMC, which in this case is 0.0557. This value coincides with the minimum of the rate function ${I}_{W}\left(s\right)$ at the right side of the figure.

**Figure 4.**IEP for the MEMC build from each pair of constraints for the example Section 4.3. We use the restrictions on the average values denoted by ${c}_{1}$ and ${c}_{2}$ to build the corresponding MEMC in each case. We compute the IEP for each pair. In this figure, we illustrate that the IEP is zero only when both restrictions are equal and that the IEP increases with the difference in the restrictions.

**Figure 5.**Memoryless potentials do not distinguish shuffled nor time-inverted data sets. Illustrative scheme showing three different data sets sharing the same maximum entropy distribution $\pi $. (

**A**) We illustrate three data sets: on the top is the original; in the middle is the one obtained by randomly shuffle the time-indexes of the spike patterns; and on the bottom is the data set obtained by inverting the time indexes. (

**B**) For each of these datasets, we compute the firing rate of each neuron denoted by $\langle {\sigma}_{i}\rangle $ and the pairwise correlations $\langle {\sigma}_{i}{\sigma}_{j}\rangle $ obtaining for each data set the same average values. (

**C**) The spike train statistics of these three data sets are characterized by the same time-independent maximum entropy distribution $\pi $.

**Figure 6.**IEP for the 1-time step Markov potential. The parameters ${h}_{i}$ and ${J}_{ij}$ are draw at random one time and remain fixed. We draw at random the components of 100 matrices ${\gamma}_{ij}$ from a Gaussian distribution with different values of mean and standard deviation e. We plot the average value of IEP for each case, with the respective error bars.

**Figure 7.**IEP for the Kinetic Ising model with random asymmetric interactions. We consider $N=6$. The components of field vector were drawn at random from a Gaussian $\mathcal{N}(-3,1)$ and the coupling matrix ${J}_{ij}$ were drawn at random from a Gaussian $\mathcal{N}(0,1)$. We plot the average value of IEP for 500 realizations of the synaptic coupling matrix for fixed $\alpha $ and $\beta $ in each case.

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Cofré, R.; Maldonado, C. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains. *Entropy* **2018**, *20*, 34.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20010034

**AMA Style**

Cofré R, Maldonado C. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains. *Entropy*. 2018; 20(1):34.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20010034

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cofré, Rodrigo, and Cesar Maldonado. 2018. "Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains" *Entropy* 20, no. 1: 34.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20010034